Associations of blood glucose levels with some diabetes risk factors (body mass index, blood pressure and total body fat) in inhabitants of Ho Municipality, Ghana: a cross-sectional survey
One complex metabolic disorder that can unenviably affect the normal human physiology is diabetes mellitus (DM). It is indeed one of the commonest noncommunicable diseases that has heightened to an epidemic level worldwide. For diseases like DM, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, type II DM, and other chronic diseases, body mass index (BMI) is identified as a positive and independent risk factor associated with morbidity and mortality. The objective of the study was to determine the relationships between BMI, blood pressure, and total body fat among inhabitants of periurban Ho, Ghana. A cross-sectional survey was carried out between May and June, 2018, among 132 inhabitants of Ho to determine the prevalence and associations among DM risk factors. The participants were selected by systematic random sampling. Standardized international protocols were used to measure BMI, blood pressure, blood glucose, and total body fat. Out of 132 respondents, majority 96 (72.7%) were female and the most common age group was 54-60 (31.1%). From the BMI classifications, 65 (49.2%) people were of normal weight while 6 (4.5%) were underweight. Total body fat (%) and blood pressure, likewise total body fat and BMI recorded significant associations of values (0.299, p<0.001-systolic; 0.298, p=0.001-diastolic), and 0.585 (p<0.001), respectively. On the contrary, there were insignificant associations found between blood glucose and diastolic blood pressure and also blood glucose and systolic blood pressure (0.100, p=0.253) and (0.057. p=0.514), respectively using the Spearman’s correlation analysis. Lastly, the test of association of socio-demographics and anthropometrics revealed there was a significant (p<0.001) correlation between total body fat and BMI using Pearson’s correlation analysis. BMI is closely related to total body fat and blood pressure; hence, education on lifestyle modification needs to be intensified to create awareness among the inhabitants of Ho municipality of Ghana. It is imperative to educate Ghanaians and beyond about the risk factor associations that predispose an individual to DM.
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