Nutrient composition, functional, sensory and microbial status of popcorn-based (Zea may everta) complementary foods enriched with cashew nut (Anacardiumoccidentale l.) flour
AbstractProtein-energy malnutrition among Nigerian children is a major health challenge. This nutrition problem is attributed to the inappropriate complementary feeding practices, low nutritional quality of traditional complementary foods and high cost of quality protein-based complementary foods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to formulate complementary foods from popcorn flour and cashew nut. A quantity
(500g) of each popcorn and cashew nut seeds (500g) was processed into fermented, germinated and roasted flours. The blends (40% popcorn, 60% cashew nut) were biochemically evaluated for proximate, minerals and amino acids profile. The microbiological properties and sensory attributes were determined using standard methods. For Protein, the results were 22.48% for germinated popcorn-cashew nut (GPC),20.76% for roasted popcorn-cashew nut (RPC) and 21.82% for fermented popcorn-cashew nut (FPC); values for ogi and Nutrend were 12.60% and 16.27% respectively. With respect to energy value, FPC, GPC, RPC, ogi and Nutrend had
533.85, 516.65, 530.49, 389.88 and 397.68 kcal, respectively. The percentages of total essential amino acids in the composition of the blends were36.9%, 40.7% and 38.9%for FPC, GPC and RPC, respectively; non-essential amino acids contents were 63.1%, 59.3% and 61.1% for FPC, GPC and RPC, respectively. The mineral content, that is, potassium, zinc and magnesium, of formulated samples were higher than those
obtained for ogi and Nutrend. The antinutrient composition of FPC was lower than that of GPC and RPC. For the functional properties, water absorption capacity was between 1.83 – 1.93 g/ml, least gelation concentration 12.67 – 14.00 g/ml, swelling capacity 0.40 – 0.74 g/ml, loose bulk density 0.43 – 0.49 g/ml and packed bulk density 0.69 – 0.83 g/ml for the formulated samples. The overall acceptability of FPC
was rated higher than GPC, RPC and ogi, but lower than Nutrend. For the microbial status, bacteria count was between 1.00–39.00 x 104cfu/g, mould1.00–4.00 x 104cfu/g and yeast 1.00–4.33 x 105cfu/g. The study concluded that the FPC sample was better than ogi in terms of protein and mineral compositions and comparable in overall acceptance to Nutrend. Therefore, the FPC may be used as a complementary food.
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