Effect of sodium chloride concentration on the functional properties of selectec Legume flours
AbstractProviding safe, nutritious, and wholesome food for poor and undernourished populations has been a major challenge for developing countries. This has led to the necessity of assembling complete food composition tables, yielding information about the traditional foods and on the functional properties of the plant foods that are consumed regularly in the developing countries. Sodium Chloride (NaCl) is the common salt used at household and industry levels to improve palatability of processed foods. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of different concentrations of NaCl on the functional properties of selected legume flours. The effect of increasing concentration of NaCl on the protein solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties of white bean, pigeon pea, cowpea and hyacinth bean were studied. The results revealed that the protein solubility of pigeon pea, cowpea and white bean flours significantly increased by increasing salt concentration and reached a maximum at 0.4 M NaCl (for pigeon pea and cowpea flours) and 0.6 M for white bean flour and then gradually decreased at higher salt concentration. The protein solubility profile of hyacinth bean fluctuated with the salt concentration, with the highest solubility at 0.6 M NaCl and lowest solubility at 0.4M NaCl. With the exception of white bean, the maximum emulsifying activity of all selected legume flours was found at 0.4 M NaCl whereas that of white bean was found at 0.2 M NaCl. Generally, with increasing salt concentration, the emulsifying activity slightly decreased for the legume flours, except for cowpea which fluctuated. Addition of NaCl significantly decreased the emulsion stability and foaming capacity of the four of selected legume with the maximum improvement being observed at 0.2 M NaCl, and then decreasing gradually at higher salt concentration. Significant improvement of foaming stability was observed when salt concentration increased. Based on the results of the present study the selected legume flour demonstrated good functional properties following the addition of NaCl, which makes these legume flours potential ingredients for application in salt containing foods.
Keywords: functional properties, Legumes, Protein solubility
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, Volume 12 No. 6
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