Macronutrient status of the elderly (60-80 years) from Central India
Abstractpresent investigation was undertaken to assess the macronutrient intake of the elderly (60-80 years) from Central India. Four hundred elderly, which included 200 males and 200 females were selected from Nagpur city, Maharashtra, India, through stratified random sampling. All subjects were personally interviewed. Their socio-demographic characteristics and general dietary practices were studied by specially formulated questionnaires whereas quantitative daily food intake was assessed by 24-hour recall methods. The data were analyzed according to age (60 – 70 Y; 70 – 80 Y) and sex using frequency distribution, percentages, mean and standard deviation. Pearson’s Correlation coefficient was used to determine the influence of the underlying determinants on macronutrient intake. Higher proportions of elderly males (31.5 %) were in the age group of 65-70 years whereas 44% elderly females were from the age group of 60-65 years. The majority of elderly males (91.5%) and females (73.5%) were married. Pension was the main source of income for the majority of elderly males (70.5%) and females (76.6%). 74% elderly females and 73% males were found to be consuming 4-5 meals in a day. 92% and 91% of elderly females and males were consuming meals regularly, respectively. The percent adequacy for pulses, other vegetables, milk and milk products and fat in elderly males was higher than Recommended Dietary Intake whereas in elderly females the percent adequacy for other vegetables and fat was higher than Recommended Dietary Intake suggested for Indian adults. The mean intake of pulses (z = 2.07 p<0.05), other vegetables (z = 2.03 p<0.05), fruits (z = 2.04 p<0.05) and fat (z = 2.53 p<0.05) was found to be significantly higher in elderly males of 60-70 years than 70-80 years. However, the dietary intake amongst the elderly females of 60-70 years and 70-80 years did not show any significant difference. Except fat intake in elderly females, consumption of all macronutrients was found to be less than Recommended Dietary Allowance suggested for adult Indians in both elderly males and females. The macronutrient intake in the elderly showed a significant negative correlation with age and positive correlation with number of meals consumed. Majority health problems among the elderly are diet related and nutrition dependent. There is an urgent need to prevent physiological aging getting converted in to pathological aging by creating health and nutrition awareness among elderly.
Keywords: Elderly, Sociodemographic, Diet, Macronutrient, India
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, Volume 13 No. 2 April 2013
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