Effect of Variety, Seed Rate and Row Spacing on the Growth and Yield of Rice in Bauchi, Nigeria
Field experiments were conducted at Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Fadama Farm Bauchi, during the rainy seasons of 2006 and 2007 to study the effects of variety, seeding rate and row spacing on growth and yield of rice. Two varieties of rice; Ex – China (Indigenous and upland/lowland) and NERICA-1 (improved and upland), three seeding rates (32, 54 and 75 kg/ha) and four row spacings (15, 20, 25 and broadcast) were used during the study. The treatments were combined and laid in a split – split plot design with three replications. Variety was placed in the main plot, seeding rate in the sub plot while row spacing was placed in sub –sub plot. Data were collected on parameters such as plant height, number of tillers per plant, spikes per hill, spikelets per spike and number of seeds per spike, seed weight per hill, 1000 grain weight and yield kg ha-1 and analyzed using analysis of variance procedure for split – split plot and significant differences among the treatment means were separated using the Duncan multiple range test (DMRT). Variety Ex-China produced significantly (P<0.05) higher numbers of tillers per plant and spikes per hill. However, NERICA-1 produced significantly (P<0.05) higher numbers of spikelets per spike, seeds per spike, weight of seed per spike, weight of seed per hill, 1000 grain weight and yield in kg ha-1 than Ex-China. Row spacings of 15, 20 and 25cm also had significant effects on the number of tillers per plant, number of spikes per hill, number of spikelets per spike, number of seeds per spike, weight of seed per spike, weight of seed per hill, 1000 grain weight and yield kg ha-1 over the control. From the factors studied, seeding rate did not show any significant difference during the two years of investigation. Interactions were also observed among the factors studied. Therefore, row spacings irrespective of the method used, or hole planting of rice could be more appropriate for optimum grain yield.
Key words: Seed rate, Row spacing, Spikes