African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development <p>The <em>African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development</em> (AJFAND) is a peer reviewed scholarly journal. The journal is envisaged to enable dissemination and sharing of food and nutrition information issues on the continent. It taps social science, biochemical, food and nutrition related research and information. It also addresses issues related to agriculture, food security, and nutrition that affect Africa’s development and people’s livelihoods. It targets and is intended to serve the research and intellectual community; African and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs); African and development oriented bilateral and multilateral agencies; and African public institutions working towards solving food and nutrition problems through sound policies, and addressing issues that affect the African continent. AJFAND is open to both African and non-African contributors. Besides academic research, the journal provides an avenue for sharing information on national-level food and nutrition programs. QUALITY remains the driver of our efforts and not QUANTITY. The journal carries out a major mentoring and capacity building role for budding African scholars, and also gives visibility to African scholars in general by highlighting and sharing their work internationally.</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal:<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>&nbsp;</p> AFRICAN SCHOLARLY SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS TRUST (ASSCAT) en-US African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 1684-5358 <p><a href=""></a></p><p>Published material in the AJFAND is covered by copyright. Authors transfer all rights to the journal upon publication. The Editor-in-Chief should grant permission for use/reprint of any published material in AJFAND.</p><p>AJFAND is open access and published under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International license (see Copyright Statement on the AJFAND website).</p> Characteristics related to the nutrient composition of white bread with the addition of taro leaves (Colocasia esculenta (L). Schott) as antidiabetic food <p><em>Diabetes Mellitus</em> (DM) is a metabolic disease that occurs due to increased blood glucose levels as a result of the body's inability to&nbsp; process carbohydrates or glucose. The most crucial thing in diabetes mellitus is diet, especially when it comes to choosing food. The good&nbsp; news is that Taro leaf (<em>Colocasia esculenta (L)</em>. Schoot), as a raw material, has a potential to control blood glucose levels and can be&nbsp; functional by adding it to food such as white bread. The aim of this study is to determine the best formula of white bread modified with&nbsp; the addition of taro leaves that can have a positive impact on people with diabetes. This is an experimental study with one factor&nbsp; completely randomized design using four treatments in which white bread with additional taro leaves 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%. These&nbsp; breads will be analyzed for their nutrition (carbohydrate, protein, fat, water, ash) product acceptance, antioxidant activity, and glycemic&nbsp; index and glycemic load. The best formula was obtained by the De Garmo method. There was no difference in the mean percentage&nbsp; value of inhibition and protein content of white bread with taro leaves added even though carbohydrate, fat, water, and ash content&nbsp; showed a difference. The highest value of carbohydrate content was at 15% taro leaf white bread (52.46%), the highest fat was at 0%&nbsp; (7.71%), the highest water was at 10% (36.52%), the highest ash was at 0% (1.56%) and the highest antioxidant activity was at 10%. The&nbsp; glycemic index and load of 10% indicated a high category (93.07% and 21.78 g/100 g of food). However, based on the results, there was a decrease in blood glucose response in taro leaves white bread compared to white bread without the taro leaves added. Organoleptic&nbsp; analysis showed that the formulation with the highest acceptance level was 10%. Therefore, the best formulation chosen based on The&nbsp; Effectiveness Index (De Garmo) was 10% taro leaf white bread with a value of 0.75.&nbsp; </p> D.N. Afifah P.S. Madani A. Mahda Y. Nindita A. Syauqy S.N. Pratiwi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 23 8 24157 24176 Low-cost nutrient-dense composite flours for children aged 1-5 years developed from locally available foods <p>Childhood malnutrition persists in low-income countries due to inadequate diet diversity and nutrient density. For seasonal crops,&nbsp; consumers make food substitutions based on price variations which has dietary implications and can cause episodes of nutritional&nbsp; deficiencies. Locally available foodstuffs can be used to formulate low-cost nutritionally adequate food mixtures. Design-Expert® and Nutrisurvey software were used to generate nutrient-dense formulations for the dry season (n=2) and wet season (n=5) from low-cost&nbsp; locally available foods in Eastern Uganda (sweet potatoes, sorghum, soybeans, beans, sesame, groundnuts and maize). Composite flours&nbsp; of the formulations were prepared and cooked following the World Food Program (WFP) recommendations and consumer acceptability&nbsp; determined using a consumer panel (n=43). The most acceptable formulation for the dry season (D2) and the most acceptable&nbsp; formulation for the wet season (R5) were selected for the determination of functional properties (dispersibility, bulk density and water&nbsp; absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index (WSI)), pasting properties (peak viscosity, breakdown viscosity, final viscosity, setback&nbsp; viscosity and peak time), color and nutrient density (energy content, sugars, starch, protein, crude fat, fiber, ash, iron and zinc). D2&nbsp; contained 25.35g of sorghum, 1.31g of soybeans, 4.34g of beans, 33.11g of sesame and 35.89g of groundnuts per 100g of formulation. R5&nbsp; contained 4.95g of maize, 20.98g of sorghum, 5.49g of beans, 29.39g of sesame and 39.19g of groundnuts per 100g of formulation. The&nbsp; nutrient densities of D2 and R5 when cooked according to WFP recommendations were also determined. D2 and R5 had high dispersibility (77.2-76.8%), low water absorption index (1.7-2.0g/g) and high water solubility index (0.2-0.3g/g). The pasting properties&nbsp; indicated that the formulations form stable low viscosity pastes that can withstand breakdown during cooking and have high resistance&nbsp; to retrogradation on cooling. Cooked D2 (100g) contained 87.2kcal, 9.5g starch, 2.3g sugars, 5.8g protein, 1.6g fat, 1.7g fiber, 2.3mg iron&nbsp; and 1.6mg zinc. Cooked R5 (100g) had 71.4kcal, 7.1g starch, 2.6g sugars, 4.2g protein, 0.9g fat, 1.0g fiber, 1.9mg iron and 1.4mg zinc. The&nbsp; cooked samples provided more than 50% of the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) for children aged 1-5 years for protein and zinc per&nbsp; serving (200g for children aged 1-3 years and 250g for children aged 4-5 years). Adopting formulations developed in this study can&nbsp; potentially contribute to reducing undernutrition in children aged 1-5 years.&nbsp; </p> S.W. Birungi R. Mugabi A. Nabubuya I.M. Mukisa J. Wambete E.J. Tibagonzeka Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 23 8 24177 24196 Effects of household income composition on food consumption in rural Malawi <p>This analysis uses panel data methods to assess how food consumption and dietary diversity are affected by changes in household&nbsp; income composition, diversity, and liquidity in rural Malawi. Fixed-effects model estimates reveal several results. First, food consumption&nbsp; and dietary diversity increase with overall income, but at a decreasing rate. Second, while no relationship is found between changes in&nbsp; income per capita of different sources (composition effects), and food consumption per capita, there is a differentiated impact on calorie&nbsp; intake changes and dietary diversity outcomes. Third, overall, there is no statistically significant effect of income diversity on changes in&nbsp; food consumption, but a positive association is found with dietary diversity. As such, income diversity driven by crop diversification leads&nbsp; to greater consumption of calories from roots, pulses, and fruits; and a drop in balanced diets, while income diversification away from agriculture yields greater dietary diversity. Finally, household liquidity, incentivized by off-farm diversification through wage labor market&nbsp; participation and selfemployment, promotes dietary diversity via higher consumption of calories from non-staple foods, notably those&nbsp; dependent on market acquisitions, such as animalbased proteins, vegetables, and fruits. These results are corroborated with those from&nbsp; the Seemingly Unrelated Regression Model. There are several policy and programmatic implications. First, income composition, diversity&nbsp; and liquidity are important dimensions to consider when focusing beyond household food security. Second, efforts to promote and&nbsp; sustain income growth are critical for food consumption growth and dietary diversity but increases in income alone are not enough.&nbsp; Policies and investments that ensure a diversified portfolio of economic activities are likely to result in better consumption and dietary&nbsp; diversity outcomes. Promoting crop diversification at the farm level coupled with nutrition sensitive programming, including extension&nbsp; and crop support programs is critical to increase and sustain consumption and better dietary quality. Third, as balanced diets in the Malawian context require a combination of staple foods sourced through crop and livestock home production, including goats, poultry&nbsp; and small domestically raised animals and protein-rich foods typically purchased in the market, as well as a degree of liquidity achieved&nbsp; through increased generation of cash income. Finally, programmatic efforts are needed to reduce gender gaps in access to resources, strengthening nutrition education more broadly, and ensure availability of balanced diets in school feeding programs potentially linked&nbsp; through local procurement.&nbsp; </p> R.M.S. Benfica Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 23 8 24197 24221 Food security's broken link: The misalignment of stakeholder priorities in agriculture and nutrition in Vihiga County, Kenya <p>Global food security will exist when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to&nbsp; meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Today, about 2 billion of the 7.96 billion people on Earth are&nbsp; food insecure. Food insecurity is still a challenge in Kenya despite different sectors' interventions in nutrition and agriculture. This study sought to identify programs and stakeholders who are influential on food security by analyzing farmers' participation in programs, the&nbsp; link between agriculture and nutrition goals, factors that influence the success of programs, and the impact of policy on food security.&nbsp; The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design using mixed methods of data collection. Qualitative data were obtained from&nbsp; thirty purposively selected stakeholders through focus group discussions and key informant interviews. The themes formed from the&nbsp; qualitative data were analyzed manually, and verbatim quotes were used to explain the findings. Additionally, two hundred and seventy- three structured questionnaires were administered to farmers to collect quantitative data. The data revealed that (75%) of farmers were beneficiaries of key programs. Pearson's chi-square test gave x!(4, n=273)&gt;=91.045, with a p-value of 0.000 which is less than 0.05,&nbsp; indicates a strong relationship between education level and farmers' awareness of key agricultural programs. The primary motivation in&nbsp; agriculture production was income generation, but the nutritional value of the food was overlooked. Poor collaboration among stakeholders was shown to not only result in unequal program coverage but also pose an obstacle in aligning agricultural programs with&nbsp; local nutrition demands. Moreover, although food and agriculture policies are in place, gaps exist in implementing and adhering to these&nbsp; policies. It was revealed that budget allocation to the agriculture sector is at (2.4 %) which is still a quarter way to the international commitment of (10%). Lastly, land ownership limitations hinder smallholder farmers' ability to meet income and nutrition needs, as&nbsp; approximately a third of those surveyed (n=136, 35.5%) reported owning less than 0.5 acres of land. It is, therefore, necessary to build the&nbsp; capacity to support smart agriculture, using technological methods to increase productivity on small land. Additionally, stakeholders&nbsp; must create policy strategies, collaboration and program distribution mechanisms to promote nutrition and agriculture to improve food&nbsp; security.&nbsp; </p> E.S. Kilelo M. Nowicki G. Nguka L.A. Olimba S.O. Konyole C . Termote Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 23 8 24222 24247 Development and acceptability of tamarillo honey jam among preschoolers (4-5 years) and adults in Kakamega, Kenya <p>Fighting malnutrition in all its forms among adults and children faces a great challenge in the 21st century. Utilization of fruits in jam&nbsp; production has been on the rise. Exploring the use of honey for food value addition has also gained popularity. Tamarillo as a fruit has a&nbsp; high antioxidant activity, contents of&nbsp; carotenoids, ascorbic acid, Vitamin B6,&nbsp; minerals and provitamin A. Globally, tamarillo&nbsp; is an&nbsp; underutilized, sustainable fruit crop with&nbsp; great potential for value-added product&nbsp; preparations such as salads, sauces, soups,&nbsp; jams, ice&nbsp; creams, juices and liqueurs. In&nbsp; Kenya, tamarillo has gained traction in the&nbsp; recent past due to the increasing awareness&nbsp; of its nutritional&nbsp; value and economic&nbsp; potential. This study sought to develop&nbsp; tamarillo honey jam and determine its&nbsp; acceptability among preschoolers (4-5)&nbsp; years&nbsp; and adults (parents included) (25-60) years.&nbsp; Fresh ripe tamarillo fruits were collected&nbsp; along with honey from Kitale and&nbsp; Marigat&nbsp; farms. The acceptability tests done with&nbsp; preschoolers used the 9-point hedonic scale&nbsp; and Focus Group Interview guide for adults.&nbsp;&nbsp; The sensory evaluation parameters used&nbsp; were: smell, appearance/colour, mouth feel,&nbsp; taste, fluidity and general acceptance. Coded&nbsp; and&nbsp; transcribed videos. were analyzed with&nbsp; NVIVO 20 for qualitative data and SPSS&nbsp; version 25 for the descriptive statistics.&nbsp; Developed tamarillo honey jam consisted of&nbsp; 64.93% (4.3 kg) fruit pulp, 32.45% (2.15 kg)&nbsp; honey, 2.59% (0.172 kg) pectin and 0.03%&nbsp; (0.002 kg) preservatives. The results showed&nbsp; that the smell, appearance/colour, taste, mouthfeel and fluidity of tamarillo honey jam&nbsp; were important factors in accepting the jam.&nbsp; More than 75% of both adults and&nbsp; preschoolers liked the jam with less than 25%&nbsp; having negative test preferences. The findings&nbsp; revealed that tamarillo jam was&nbsp; acceptable among the adults and&nbsp; preschoolers. Findings indicate that honey&nbsp; can&nbsp; be incorporated in jams for consumption&nbsp;&nbsp; of variety value added&nbsp; nutritious products and&nbsp; help address&nbsp; macronutrients and&nbsp; micronutrient public&nbsp; health concerns&nbsp; alongside diets.&nbsp; </p> D.O. Asianut A.M. Aswani A. Sigot Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 23 8 24248 24268 A comparative analysis of organic and conventional horticultural farming in the Getasan district, Semarang Indonesia <p>The organic horticultural farming system is a horticultural farming technique that relies on natural materials in its production and is a&nbsp; sustainable agriculture, in contrast to the conventional horticultural farming system which still relies on chemicals in its production process. The purpose of this research was to compare organic and conventional horticultural farming systems in Getasan district,&nbsp; Semarang. This study is a crosssectional descriptive-analytical study that employed survey methodologies. This study was conducted&nbsp; from July to December 2019 using a sample of 314 respondents, 90 organic horticulture farmers and 224 conventional horticulture&nbsp; farmers as research subjects. Research results showed that the average total additional cost of restoring soil nutrients in 100 m<sup>2</sup> / year&nbsp; for organic horticulture farming was IDR. 69,958.33 less than the cost for conventional farming systems, which was IDR. 79,550.00 per 100&nbsp; m<sup>2</sup> per year, with a p-value of 0.032*. The cost of purchasing fertilizer in year / 100m<sup>2</sup> on a conventional horticultural farm was IDR.&nbsp; 90,575.78, greater than the cost of organic horticulture farming which was only IDR. 73,170.38 with a p-value&lt; 0,001*. The average yield of&nbsp; organic horticulture farms was somewhat higher than that of conventional farms during each growing season. The average annual&nbsp; income from yields in 100 m<sup>2</sup>/year for organic horticulture production was IDR 2,449,246.32, while conventional IDR. 2,369,641.10 with&nbsp; p-value of 0.441 although not statistically significant. The average profit per 100 m2 / year for an organic horticultural farming system&nbsp; was IRD. 1,549,303.42, which is greater than the profit value for a conventional horticultural farming system, which was IDR. 1,450,109.82,&nbsp; 959,289.06, although statistically not significant, with p-value = 0.228. The total annual production cost for the organic horticulture&nbsp; farming system was less than the conventional system, which was IDR 901,346.78 for the organic horticulture farming system and IDR.&nbsp; 921,084.17 for conventional, for every 100 m<sup>2</sup> / year with p-value = 0.383, even though not statistically significant. Statistically, there was&nbsp; no significant difference in labor costs between the two agricultural systems, p-value 0.702, but descriptive analysis shows that the&nbsp; average labor cost per 100 m<sup>2</sup>/year for organic horticulture farming was IDR. 588,859.57, which is less than IDR. 591,760.50 for&nbsp; conventional horticulture farming. Based on the parameters analyzed, the outcome of this study demonstrates that the organic&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; horticulture farming system is superior to the conventional horticultural farming system. </p> S. Asfawi D. Utomo S. Isworo Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 23 8 24269 24292 Policy strategies in planning adaptation of the sustainable palm oil industry in merauke regency Papua Province of Indonesia <p>In the Papua region, the expansion of the palm oil industry increased by up to 71% from 2011 to 2019, with the largest affected area&nbsp; located in Merauke regency. The objective of this research is to develop policy strategies with impact simulations related to economic,&nbsp; socio-cultural, and environmental issues for the sustainability of the palm oil industry with or without a moratorium on further expansion&nbsp; of land area. This study employs a system dynamics approach. The dynamic system is carried out through conceptual development,&nbsp; model specification, model verification, scenario development, and validity testing by measuring the absolute percentage error (MAPE).&nbsp; Model development and validation were carried out using PowerSim v.7 software. The policy scenario is simulated from the palm oil expansion policy beguan in 2018, until the research year ends in 2030. The validated results, forming the basis for simulations, exhibit&nbsp; high accuracy with a MAPE of less than 5%. The percentage deviations of 4.21% for production and 0.28% for land area is observed based&nbsp; on actual data from 2018 to 2022. The simulation of a 20% expansion scenario shows a significant increase in production to 1 million&nbsp; metric tons per year but also a 1.3% rise in waste generation, with an average waste volume of 350,000 tons per year. The expanded area&nbsp; will experience a 50% increase in the labor force to meet the higher production demand. The proposed comprehensive strategy includes&nbsp; regional contract regulations, diligent monitoring of land clearing, community empowerment, and indigenous peoples' involvement. It&nbsp; also promotes smallholder plantations, the utilization of waste for energy, and alternative markets for crude palm oil (CPO). Conversely,&nbsp; the dynamic model scenario with a moratorium on land expansion resulted in a production output of 600,000 metric tons, slower job&nbsp; market growth, and a 1.3% increase in waste generation, with an average waste volume of 195,000 tons per year. The strategy proposed&nbsp; uses proper waste processing, production adjustments, regulation of community rights and boundaries, resource development, and&nbsp; involvement of local palm farmers. These simulations offer valuable insights for sustainable decision-making, emphasizing the need to balance economic growth, environmental protection, and community well-being in the development of the palm oil industry.&nbsp; </p> O.S. David R Didi P.T. Alex Mahyuddin Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 23 8 24317 24345 Effect of germination and roasting on the proximate, mineral and anti-nutritional factors in finger millet (<i>Eleucine coracana</i>), cowpeas (<i.Vigna unguiculata</i>) and orange maize (<i>Zea mays</i>) <p>Finger millet (Eleucine coracana), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and bio-fortified vitamin A “orange” maize (Zea mays) are three nutrient&nbsp; dense crops currently being promoted in Zimbabwe. The effect on nutrient content of processing these specific crop varieties has not&nbsp; been investigated. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the effects of germination and roasting on the proximate, mineral,&nbsp; and antinutritional factors in finger millet, cowpeas and orange maize. Finger millet grains were germinated for 48hrs, cowpeas and&nbsp; orange maize for 24hrs, at room temperature (20-23oC). Both raw and processed samples were dried and milled into flour for the&nbsp; determination of proximate and mineral and anti-nutritional composition. Protein content of finger millet increased significantly after&nbsp; processing from 6.53±0.25 mg/100 g to 11.27±0.15 mg/100 g in germinated finger millet flour (P&lt;0.05). Germination of finger millet&nbsp; resulted in significantly increased minerals (mg/100 g); calcium from 345.53±0.55 to 352.63±0.21, zinc from 3.59±0.15 to 8.71±0.01, sodium from 49.89±0.16 to 57.78±1.20 and iron content from 3.75±0.05 to 4.52±0.01 whilst magnesium and potassium decreased significantly&nbsp; from 198.09±0.07 to 69.08±0.06 and 487.08±0.03 to 144.78±0.27 respectively. Processing of cowpeas resulted in slight but significant&nbsp; increase in protein content (20.47±0.21 to 28.50±0.10), increased calcium (138.18±0.12 to 148.18±0.12 mg/100 g), magnesium (14.23±2.00 to 19.18±0.31 mg/100 g), potassium (232±4.00 to 443.41±0.02 mg/100 g) and iron (4.85±0.03 to 4.86±0.04 mg/100 g). Conversely zinc and&nbsp; sodium decreased from 4.5±0.30 to 2.9±0.10 mg/100 g and 31.85±0.03 to 11.64±0.02 mg/100 g, respectively. Notably for orange maize,&nbsp; protein content did not change from 10.06±0.04 to 10.04±0.04 g/100 g before and after processing. Calcium increased from 47.02±2.82 to&nbsp; 57.99±8.85 (mg/100 g), magnesium from 90.91±0.11 to 108.30±0.53 (mg/100 g), potassium from 2.13±0.04 to 4.33±0.25 (mg/100 g),&nbsp; sodium from 0.50±0.02 to 0.70±0.02 (mg/100 g) and iron from 0.50±0.02 to 1.25±0.05 (mg/100 g). Zinc decreased from 6.2±0.2 to 3.53±0.55&nbsp; (mg/100 g). Tannins, oxalates and phytates decreased significantly after processing of all three crops. Results showed that&nbsp; germination and roasting increased the nutritional profile and decreased anti-nutrient content in finger millet, cowpeas and orange&nbsp; maize. Therefore, it is important to consider germinating and roasting these grains during processing to increase the nutritional potential&nbsp; of the end food product. Further studies are required to investigate the decrease in some nutrients after germination and&nbsp; roasting and possibly establish optimum processing parameters for improved nutrient profile of these food crops. </p> T. Dhliwayo P. Chopera T.M. Matsungo C. Chidewe S. Mukanganyama E. Nyakudya F. Mtambanengwe P. Mapfumo L.K. Nyanga Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 23 8 24346 24362 Preliminary bibliometrics of plant-derived health foods over the last decade in the Scopus database <p>A growing interest in the medicinal values of foods can be assessed by the rapidity of research publications on foods that exert health&nbsp; benefits. Many foods that are of health benefit to humans, irrespective of their origin (plants, animals) and subjected level of processing&nbsp; (fermentation, cooking, warming, freezing, vacuumpackaging), are variously designated in scientific literature based on their biofunction.&nbsp; Plant-based foods’ application vagaries, momentum, and research orientation regarding their health functionality&nbsp; awareness are scarcely studied by bibliometrics from a global perspective. Therefore, a bibliometric search was performed on the Scopus&nbsp; database from 2011 (January) to 2021 (April) using a range of search keys covering reports of conceptualized consumable plant-derived foods with health-promoting potential. A total of 362,309 documents on medicinal foods of plant origin were obtained from the database.&nbsp; The data were obtained in comma-separated values (CSV) format and analyzed with Microsoft Excel tools. Of the total&nbsp; documents from the Scopus database on the study, 8.01% (29,036) were contributed by African researchers. Comparatively, lead&nbsp; contributors (global; Africa) by group disciplines include biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology (118,896; 8,236); pharmacology,&nbsp; toxicology, and pharmaceutics (104,530; 8,581); agricultural and biological sciences (99,053; 9,610), respectively. Similarly, lead contributors by country include China (73,977), India (44,898), USA (44,582), and Nigeria (4,680). This observation shows a higher research&nbsp; propensity towards plant-derived medicinal foods in populous nations due to factors like dietary culture, an increase in vegan&nbsp; and health-nutrition enthusiast populations, and the emergent concerns with the therapeutic use of synthetic pharmaceuticals. The analyzed results gave insights into the research orientation of plant-based foods that promote human health on a global stage and&nbsp; provide future research directions. Knowledge of the various application of plant-based foods may potentiate the United Nations&nbsp; Sustainable Goals initiative on responsible consumption (SDG 12), and health and wellbeing (SDG 3) among the global population.&nbsp; </p> O.O. Osemwegie A.F. Olaniran J.O. Folorunsho C.O. Nwonuma O.A. Ojo L.A. Adetunde O.O. Alejolowo O.M. Oluba F.Y. Daramola Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 23 8 24363 24382 Measuring the labour productivity of sericultural farmers in Mahasarakham province, Thailand <p>Sericultural farming is important to the local economy of Mahasarakham province of Thailand. This study measured the labour&nbsp; productivity of sericultural farmers by calculating the total labour value added per hour worked, given that the total labour value added&nbsp; refers to the difference between the total revenue and the total cost, not including the labour cost. This mixed-method research collected&nbsp; empirical data from 160 households in five districts of Mahasarakham during the 2020 production cycle using questionnaires and semi- structured interviews. Silk mulberry sales minus all costs (except labour) were used to represent the added value of labour. The overall total revenue data and total costs in each production cycle were used in this study. The study's results revealed that farmers' total labour&nbsp; productivity equated to 1.68 USD per hour per production cycle, 9.69 USD per day and 1,559.61 USD per year, calculated using the added&nbsp; value of labour divided by total hours worked. When comparing by district, Na Dun had the highest productivity of labour at 1.90 USD per hour, followed by Na Chueak (1.82 USD per hour), Wapi Pathum (1.70 USD per hour), Phayakkhaphum Phisai (1.50 USD per hour) and&nbsp; Yang Sisurat tires (1.46 USD per hour), respectively. The research results showed that the labour productivity of the studied sericultural&nbsp; farmers, 1.68 USD per hour, was higher than the minimum wage of Mahasarakham labours in 2022, which was 1.26 USD per hour.&nbsp; Despite the higher productivity cost, various challenges faced by the farmers were also identified, including a shortage of labour, lack of a&nbsp; market to support production, insufficient promotion and support from government agencies, a low price for silk products, damage to&nbsp; barns repair costs, lack of investment and production factors. The procedures and methods used to raise silkworms are complicated and&nbsp; timeconsuming. Traditional farmers' barns are insufficient for raising silkworms and sick silk varieties; a suitable barn design and&nbsp; systematic production management are recommended, providing the research's empirical evidence confirmed to help enhance labour&nbsp; productivity. Based on the results and discussions, this paper recommends future studies to investigate practical guides to help increase&nbsp; labour productivity and tackle the challenges facing local sericultural farming to a wider extent. </p> W. Sawangloke S. Chanthes S. Nuttee Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 23 8 24383 24405 Characterization of the traditional cheese Adghess produced from cow's milk <p>In Algeria, milk is traditionally transformed into several forms to allow its preservation, particularly fermented products, among which&nbsp; cheese has been the pride of the culinary tradition for a long time. Adghess is a fresh cheese frequently made in the region, especially in&nbsp; rural areas. Adghess is a product poorly known outside its original geographical area. The objective of this study was to characterize&nbsp; Adghess cheese by determining some of its physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. The characterization was preceded by a&nbsp; survey carried out in Oum El Bouaghi with 50 households in order to determine the production diagram of this cheese. The survey was&nbsp; carried out by means of a questionnaire based on random sampling. Ten samples were collected at the level of five farms located in the&nbsp; region and were analyzed for physicochemical attributes such as pH, total dry extract, total lipids as well as, dornic acidity, and microbial&nbsp; population such as total flora, total and fecal coliforms, <em>Salmonella, Clostridium</em>, yeast, and molds. The results obtained showed that the&nbsp; cheese samples analyzed were acidic (pH and an acidity of 4.4 and 38.4°D, respectively). For the total dry extract of Adghess cheese is 334&nbsp; g kg-1 with a lipid level of 91 g kg<sup>-1</sup>, the recorded ash content was 3.8g/kg, while sodium chloride was 2.4g/kg. The microbiological&nbsp; results showed a high content of the total flora (7.8×10<sup>8</sup>cfu g<sup>1</sup>): Total coliforms were noted to be present in all the analyzed samples, with&nbsp; the absence of fecal coliforms. Unlike molds, yeasts marked their presence (4.6×102cfu g<sup>-1</sup>). The microbiological findings revealed a&nbsp; high level of total flora (7.8108 cfu g<sup>-1</sup>): total coliforms were found to be present in all of the examined samples, although fecal coliforms&nbsp; were not found. Yeasts (4.6 102 cfu g<sup>-1</sup>) left a trace of their existence, unlike molds. The absence of all the pathogenic microorganisms&nbsp; sought (<em>Salmonella, Clostidium,</em> and molds) made the cheese healthier for consumption. Overall, the hygienic quality of the cheese&nbsp; studied was satisfactory. This work constituted the starting point to launch research on this product in order to preserve the know-how&nbsp; on the one hand and achieve the objective of manufacturing it on artisanal, then industrial scales.&nbsp;</p> D. Meriem A. Fadhila E. Lamia M. Hacène Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 23 8 24406 24422 Economics and effect of replacing wheat offal with cassava peel meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility of growing pigs <p>This study was carried out to determine the feeding value of Cassava Peel Meal (CPM) as replacement for wheat offal in growing pigs’&nbsp; diets. Five treatment diets were formulated by replacing wheat offal with CPM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% for treatments T1, T2, T3, T4 and&nbsp; T5, respectively. A total of 75 growing pigs of large white breed were allotted on weight equalization basis into the five dietary treatments&nbsp; with 15 pigs per treatment and 3 pigs per replicate in a completely randomized design. The pigs were allowed to acclimatize&nbsp; for two weeks before the commencement of the study which lasted for 14 weeks. Results indicated that wheat offal contained 16.25%&nbsp; crude protein (CP), 18.86% crude fibre (CF) and 1.18% ether extract. The values were higher than cassava peel meal’s 5.18% CP and&nbsp; 15.18% CF and was lower than 1.99% ether extract. The 25, 50, 75% CPM significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased final live weight, daily weight gain&nbsp; and feed conversion ratio compared to 100% CPM. There was no significant (p&gt;0.05) difference in feed intake. Total feed cost/Kg,&nbsp; feed cost/Kg weight gain and returns on investment significantly (p&lt;0.05) decreased as the levels of cassava peel meal increased in the&nbsp; diets. The bled, scalded, eviscerated and dressed weights decreased as the level of CPM increased in the diets. The heart weight&nbsp; increased with the CPM level, while the liver and the kidney decreased with increase in CPM in the diets. Blood glucose and cholesterol&nbsp; increased with increasing levels of cassava peel meal in the diets while albumin and creatinine decreased as the level of cassava peel&nbsp; meal increased in the diets. The packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) counts decreased (p&lt;0.05) as the&nbsp; level of cassava peel meal increased in the diets. White blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte values were highest for pigs in T3 (50%) and T4&nbsp; (75%). The study concluded that cassava peel meal could replace 75% of wheat offal in growing pig diets without deleterious effects on&nbsp; growth performance and economic benefit in terms of total feed cost, cost per kilogram and weight gain.&nbsp;&nbsp; </p> E.E. Nsa P.O. Ozung E.A. Etuk E.E. Archibong Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 23 8 24423 24442 Occurrence, abundance, and distribution of soil nematodes associated with groundnut farming in Kenya <p>Groundnut is a major cash crop grown in tropical and subtropical regions. In Kenya, groundnut is mostly grown in the Western and&nbsp; Nyanza regions and has been ranked the fourth cash crop of the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB). However, groundnut production in Kenya has&nbsp; continued to decline with farmers attaining less than 50 % of the yield potential of 700 to 1400 kg/ha. Yearly statistical reports by Agriculture and Food Authority (AFA), Nuts and Oil Crops Directorate for the last seven years, show the decline has been consistent. In&nbsp; 2019/2020 AFA reported there was a decrease of 216 Mt in Homa Bay and 30 Mt in Kisumu. Yield loss is attributed to lack of quality&nbsp; improved seed and pests’ infestation during growth and storage. Plant parasitic nematodes (PPN) are the major pests of groundnut worldwide. This study sought to investigate the occurrence of nematode communities (PPN and non-parasitic nematodes (NPN) in soils&nbsp; cultivated with groundnuts in the LVB and to determine the effect of farmyard manure application on their presence. Six peanut varieties&nbsp; (4 improved and 2 local) were cultivated in Nyakach and Karachuonyo in March to August in 2021 and 2022. Soil samples, groundnut&nbsp; roots and pods were collected. A modified Baermann’s, maceration methods and filtration technique was used to isolate nematodes&nbsp; from the soil, groundnut pods and roots. Multi-stage Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine any significant differences in&nbsp; abundance and richness while the Shannon index compared diversity of PPN and NPN among the farms in two seasons and regions.&nbsp; Eleven genera of PPN: <em>Aphelenchoides, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Tylenchus, Scutellonema, Trichodorus, Hemicycliophora, Tylenchorhynchus, Rotylenchulus </em>and<em> Criconema. spp</em>., and three genera of NPN; Rhabdittes, <em>Dorylaimus spp</em>. and&nbsp; Predators were categorized. Aphelenchoides and Meloidogyne were the most abundant PPN and Rhabdites NPN in both regions and&nbsp; seasons. Application of farm yard manure led to decline of abundance of PPN and an increase in NPN. The results confirm the presence&nbsp; of PPN in the LVB groundnut growing regions and the potential use of farm yard manure in their management. This study recommends&nbsp; further investigation on actual damage potential of these PPN and their management strategies.&nbsp;&nbsp; </p> A. Nyandiala T. Amakhobe S. Okoth Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 23 8 24293 24316 Determinants of commercialization and choice of market channels among smallholder groundnut farmers in the Capricorn district, Limpopo Province, South Africa <p>Groundnut (<em>Arachis hypogaea</em>) is one of the most significant crops in South Africa and Africa due to its various health benefits and diverse&nbsp; uses. Groundnut production provides employment for farmers, starting from the production to the marketing phase. This study aims to&nbsp; analyse the determinants of commercialization and the choice of market channels (local market, urban market and farm gate) among&nbsp; smallholder groundnut farmers. The study was conducted in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa, in the three villages namely; Moletlane, Ga-Molepo and Zebediela. A purposive sampling technique was used to sample 100 smallholder farmers from a&nbsp; sampling frame of 405 groundnut farmers. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data by interviewing 100 selected&nbsp; smallholder farmers and Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 27.0 was used to analyze the data. The binary logistic regression model was employed to analyze the factors affecting commercialization of groundnuts amongst the smallholder farmers.&nbsp; Furthermore, the study applied multinomial logit model to determine the choice of market channels for groundnuts amongst the&nbsp; smallholder farmers. The study’s results indicated that 51% of the smallholder farmers sold their groundnuts at an urban market, 35% at&nbsp; a local market and 14% at the farm gate. The results of the study further indicated that age, gender, level of education, household size,&nbsp; access to extension services, groundnut yield, and employment status had a significant influence on the groundnuts commercialisation&nbsp; by smallholder groundnut farmers. The variables of gender, distance to the market, vehicle ownership and employment status had significant influence on the choice of market channel of the smallholder groundnut farmers in the study area. Smallholder farmers’&nbsp; access to market information is limited, therefore, the local agricultural department and municipalities should initiate an extension&nbsp; programme that will focus and put more emphasis on the access to market information. Policies aimed at improving commercialization among smallholder groundnut farmers should be informed by the factors and determinates found in this study.&nbsp; </p> M.E. Mothiba D.L. Mthombeni M.A. Antwi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 23 8 24443 24458 Effect of bioslurry effluent on seedling growth of Swiss Chard (<i>Beta vulgaris</i> L.) <p>Glasshouse experiments to evaluate the effect of bioslurry effluent on seedling growth of Swiss chard (<em>Beta vulgaris L</em>) were conducted in&nbsp; summer 2017 and winter 2018 at Dohne Agriculture Development Institute, Stutterheim, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Two cultivars of&nbsp; Swiss chard, Star 1801 and Fordhook giant, were planted in 200 cavity trays using a hygromix commercial growing medium incorporated&nbsp; with fertilizer treatments at different rates of bioslurry: no incorporation (control), 50% bioslurry, 100% bioslurry, 200% bioslurry and the&nbsp; recommended rate of 2:3:4 (30) NPK fertilizers. In the glasshouse the experiments were arranged in a randomized complete block design&nbsp; (RCBD) which was replicated three times. At four weeks after germination, ten (10) seedlings per treatment were destructively&nbsp; sampled randomly to determine the plant growth and biological mass parameters: i) Seedling height, shoot and root height; ii) Seedling&nbsp; mass; iii) Fresh shoot and fresh root mass as well as their dry mass; iv) Nutrient content of leaves. The results indicated that fertilization&nbsp; with 100%Bioslurry produced significantly taller seedlings and shoot height, while the shortest seedlings were obtained from the&nbsp; recommended inorganic fertilizer. Fertilization with 200%Bioslurry and the control treatment produced significantly higher biological&nbsp; yield compared to other treatments. The interaction between fertilizer treatments, cultivar and season indicated that summer season&nbsp; performed better compared to winter in seedling growth and development, and Fordhook giant fertilized with 100% and 200% bioslurry&nbsp; was superior compared to Star 1801. Fertilization with 50% bioslurry resulted in seedlings with higher sodium, while the seedlings grown&nbsp; in the control treatment showed higher copper content. The highest manganese was obtained from the seedlings fertilized with the&nbsp; inorganic fertilizer. It is therefore, concluded that fertilization with bioslurry at 100% and 200% bioslurry application rates enhanced the&nbsp; growth and quality of Swiss chard seedlings.&nbsp;</p> A. Dumani T.T. Silwana B. Mpambani R. Celliers S. Mhlontlo M.M. Mbangcolo Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 23 8 24459 24466