African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development <p>The <em>African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development</em> (AJFAND) is a peer reviewed scholarly journal. The journal is envisaged to enable dissemination and sharing of food and nutrition information issues on the continent. It taps social science, biochemical, food and nutrition related research and information. It also addresses issues related to agriculture, food security, and nutrition that affect Africa’s development and people’s livelihoods. It targets and is intended to serve the research and intellectual community; African and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs); African and development oriented bilateral and multilateral agencies; and African public institutions working towards solving food and nutrition problems through sound policies, and addressing issues that affect the African continent. AJFAND is open to both African and non-African contributors. Besides academic research, the journal provides an avenue for sharing information on national-level food and nutrition programs. QUALITY remains the driver of our efforts and not QUANTITY. The journal carries out a major mentoring and capacity building role for budding African scholars, and also gives visibility to African scholars in general by highlighting and sharing their work internationally.</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal:<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>&nbsp;</p> en-US <p><a href=""></a></p><p>Published material in the AJFAND is covered by copyright. Authors transfer all rights to the journal upon publication. The Editor-in-Chief should grant permission for use/reprint of any published material in AJFAND.</p><p>AJFAND is open access and published under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International license (see Copyright Statement on the AJFAND website).</p> (Prof. Ruth K. Oniang'o, PhD) (Prof. Ruth K. Oniang'o) Thu, 29 Feb 2024 07:54:52 +0000 OJS 60 Socio-cultural norms in the local food system and potential implications for women’s dietary quality in rural Northern Ghana <p>Women’s activities within the local food system are linked to their dietary quality. Their ability to consume a nutritious diet may be influenced by socio-cultural norms; often, the influence of these norms has not been adequately studied. This study examined how socio-cultural norms linked with rural food systems can potentially exert adverse effects on women’s diets. The study was conducted in two rural communities, Yilkpene and Kpachilo, in Northern Ghana, between May and July 2016. Both selected study communities were chosen because they had similar population sizes, dietary patterns, and access to social services. Using a qualitative approach, sixteen key informant interviews with community and institutional leaders, 11 focus group discussions comprising 87 community members, and forty 24-hour dietary recall interviews with women of reproductive age were used to explore the nature of the local food system linked with sociocultural norms. Transcribed interviews were coded and analyzed, thematically, using pre-determined and emerging themes. A total of 143 women and men participated in the study with women dominating the sample. The components of the food system in both communities were constructed, primarily, around men. Quantities, quality, and varieties of produce, its distribution, and intra-household allocation were dominated by male perceptions and practices that determine access and ownership of productive resources, and pre-determined roles and responsibilities of household members. Men dominated production of economic crops (cereals, and legumes); women produced vegetables, and limited quantities of legumes and cereals, mainly for home consumption. Men controlled allocation of cereals for household meal preparation; more expensive complementary ingredients were provided by women. Although women prepared household meals, men received the ‘lion’s share’ of nutrient-dense components. Forty-five percent of women could not meet minimum dietary diversity of at least five food groups in their diets. The local food system in Northern Ghana is dominated by gender-driven socio-cultural norms, which constitutes a potential barrier to women achieving dietary adequacy. Interventions should deliberately address these culturally-established barriers, especially in contexts where subsistence farming is the main source of livelihood.</p> S Zakariah-Akoto, M Armar-Klemesu, A Ankomah, K Torpey, R Aryeetey Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Acceptability of cereal-cricket composite porridge as influenced by socio-economic factors and breast-feeding status of mothers and care-givers in Siaya County, Kenya <p>The trajectory for widespread integration of edible insects into the human diet is still confronted by low acceptability especially among communities that traditionally or habitually do not consume insects. While the concern today is how best to present edible insects into food matrices that improve their acceptability, this development should be aligned with consumer intrigues into the choices of insect-based foods. This study determined the influence of socio-economic factors (age, education, marital status, occupation, and income levels), and breastfeeding status of mothers and care givers on acceptability of cricket-based porridges. Four composite porridge flours were developed by blending cricket flour with maize, wheat, and soy flour at four different levels. The reference formula (CP) had 0% cricket inclusion and was a composite of maize, wheat, and defatted soy flour in the ratio of 2:1:1 resembling Famila Baby weaning porridge flour, a common infant formula in Kenya. The other treatment flours were formulated by replacing an equivalent amount of soy flour with cricket flour at 25%, 50% and 75% to allow enrichment of Famila formula with cricket flour, and were coded as CPB1, CPB2 and CPB3, respectively. Porridge prepared from the flours were evaluated for acceptability among forty mothers and care-givers selected in Siaya County, Kenya. Non-cricket porridge was the most accepted across the respondents’ socioeconomic dynamics. Acceptability of cricket-based porridges improved with age and level of education but reduced significantly for both married (p&lt;0.000) and unmarried women (p&lt;0.000). Women engaged in formal employment rated cricket-based porridges significantly higher (p&lt;0.003) than other occupations. Income level generated mixed influences with non-cricket porridge still rated significantly higher (p&lt;0.000) than cricket-based porridges across different income groups. Breastfeeding had insignificant influence on acceptability of the porridges (p=0.06). From this study, age, education, occupation and income showed varied influences on the acceptability of cereal-cricket porridges and should therefore be considered among key factors that shape consumer acceptability. Consequently, promotion strategies should consider the latter socio-economic factors in devising interventions to improve acceptability of edible insects and their products.</p> DO Aboge, MA Orinda, SO Konyole Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Association between dietary diversity and nutritional status of adults (18-65 years) and children (1-5 years) in urban and rural communities of the northwest region of Cameroon <p>Consuming diets of low diversity may lead to micronutrient deficiencies and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Dietary diversity (DD) has become a popular indicator to assess the quality of diets as well as nutrient adequacy of food intake among adults and children. With the high prevalence of malnutrition in the Northwest Region (NWR) of Cameroon, the objective of this study was to determine the DD of the diet and nutritional status of adults (18-65 years) and children (1-5 years) in four selected rural (Mankon and Mendakwe) and urban (Mankon and Nkwen) communities. Cross-sectional study design was used with multistage sampling technique to select the participants and study sites. The study sample consisted of a total of 1248 participants. Nutritional status of adults was determined using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), while weight-for-age, weight-for-height, height-for-age and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were used for children. Dietary diversity (DD) of adults and children was determined using individual DD questionnaire. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. A significant number of adults from Nkwen (urban) were either overweight (n=74; 47.4%) or obese (n=44; 28.2%) with 43.6% (n=68) from urban Mankon. A significant number of adults from rural Mankon were normal weight (49.4%; n=77), while 2.6% (n=4) from Mendakwe (rural) were underweight and 64.1% (n=100) were normal weight. Children in the rural areas were severely underweight (n=45; 14.4%), while children in the urban areas were either normal (n=158; 50.6%) or overweight (n=43; 13.8%). Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) values indicated that most children in both urban and rural areas were not acutely malnourished. The food groups that were consumed most across all age groups in all areas were grains, roots and tubers, fats and oils. The least consumed were fruit and vegetables, including vitamin A-rich plant foods as well as milk and milk products. There was a significant relationship between poor DD and weight-for-height (MAM) among 1-3 year old children in urban Nkwen (p=0.03) and urban Mankon (p=0.04). Although there was no significant association between DD, BMI and WC across all areas, most of the adults who had good DD were either of normal weight, overweight or obese. Overweight and obesity were more prevalent in the urban areas compared to the rural areas. There is a need to investigate the association between overall dietary intake and nutritional status and not specifically DD.</p> FA Akob, K Pillay, N Wiles, M Siwela Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Stochastic frontier technical efficiency analysis of watermelon (<i>Citrullus lenatus</i>) production in Nigeria <p>The study analysed the efficiency of Watermelon (<em>Citrullus lenatus</em>) Production in Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting three hundred and sixty (360) respondents. Selection was done with purposive and simple random sampling, and data collected with a structured questionnaire. The objectives of the study were to identify the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, determine the technical efficiency and measure the total resource productivity of watermelon production in the study area. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and quantitative analytical tool of stochastic frontier model (Cobb Douglas production function). Socio-economic attributes like age, farm size, educational status and farm experience were described to show their relationship with watermelon production in the study area. Results of the stochastic frontier model showed that all the estimated coefficients of the variables of the production function were positive except fungicide. They included: farm size (0.0795), labour (0.0201), number of seed grown (0.926) and fertilizer (0.0207). This implied that watermelon output increases with increase in these variables. It was also shown that labour (0.441), fertilizer (0.475) and fungicide (-1.662) did not exert any significant effect on watermelon output as shown by their t-ratio values. For the factors affecting technical inefficiency of watermelon farmers, age of farmers and farm size were negative and significant at 0.05 levels of probability, while household size, educational qualification and farming experience were all positive and significant at 5% levels of significance and type of cropping was positive and significant at 10% level of significance. Non-farm income was positive and significant at 5% level of probability. This means that one unit increase in these variables would increase technical inefficiency of the farmers and hence decreasing their technical efficiency. Finally, the return to scale parameter returned the value 0.967 which indicated that watermelon production in the study area was in the Stage II of the production surface. Based on the results of the analysis the following were recommended. Watermelon farmers should be provided and encouraged to take loans, be assisted with extension services and become members of farmer associations, in order to boost their production. Also inputs such as farm size, labour, seeds, fertilizer and fungicide should be increased for optimum production.</p> OI Ettah, JA Igiri, E Agbachom, J Effiong, MA Iyam, IA Asuquo, FO Faithpraise Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Typologie des systemes de productions du bovin de race Djelli (<i>Bos taurus indicus</i<) dans les communes de gotheye, sinder et say au Niger <p>The development of Djelli cattle breeding in Niger remains a challenge due to prejudices about its productivity. The particularities of its production systems have not been sufficiently developed. The aim of this study is to develop a typology of local Djelli cattle production systems in six localities in the communes of Gothèye, Sinder and Say in Niger. A survey was carried out among 150 breeders. Discriminant factor analysis (DFA) and hierarchical ascending classification (HAC) were used to identify three types of production system: The first type is made up of transhumant herders whose main activity is livestock rearing and who belong to the Peulh ethnic group. This type is characterized by large herds (27 head). They have 3 breeding cows and 4 suckling cows for 16 breeding females. The second type is made up of sedentary breeders. Their main activities are fishing and trading, and they belong to the Sonrai socio-cultural ethnic group. Their herds are modest (17 head), comprising 2 breeding and 5 suckling cows for 11 breeding females. The third type is made up of semi-transhumant herders. Their main activity is farming, and they belong to the Sonrai socio-cultural ethnic group, with an equally modest herd size (18 head). The number of breeding cows is similar to that of the sedentary herders (2 head). However, the number of sucklers is reduced to 3 head for 10 breeding females. The daily intake of bran concentrate per suckling female is the highest (5 kg of bran concentrate per day). The ratio of lactating females to females of breeding age was r =0.45 in the sedentary group, compared with r=0.30 in the semi-transhumant group and r = 0.25 in the transhumant group. The results also showed that the rearing environment is dominated by a diet of rice straw (39%) and rice bran (49%). The most frequently vaccinated disease on the farms was pasteurellosis (87.3%), and the highest deworming rate was 40%. The environment also revealed a variation in lactating females for the riparian localities of Say and Yelwani (5.4±2.6b and 6.0±2.8b respectively), which are very significantly different (P&lt;0.001) from the non-riparian localities of Koulbaga and Tassikoirey (2.9±1.2a and 2.8±1.20a respectively). In conclusion, sedentary farmers are the most productive in a food environment dominated by rice crop residues and diseases such as pasteurellosis and endoparasites.</p> CI Guero, M Grema, MMM Abdou, KI Adamou, M Issa Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Integrating vegetables in push-pull technology: Gendered preferences of smallholder farmers in Western Kenya <p>Transformative rural smallholder agriculture addressing biophysical constraints requires farmer-led innovations for increased technology adoption. Following the need to further intensify the cereal push-pull technology (PPT) for pest and weed control through integration with vegetables, we conducted surveys to determine suitable vegetables across three different counties in Kenya namely Homabay, Siaya, and Trans-Nzoia. Farming in these areas is predominantly maize based and introducing vegetables to the system will improve household food and nutritional security, together with income. A systematic random sampling method was used to sample a total of 124 smallholder farmers who were interviewed during field days where farmer awareness of technology was mobilised. Descriptive results showed kale (47%) and black nightshade (30%) were the most preferred high-value vegetables for integration into push-pull plots in these regions. This was followed by cowpea (15%), onion (6%) and tomato (2%) underlying the wide range of farmer preferences and priorities. There were also gender differences in vegetable preferences with men preferring capital intensive and high value vegetables, while women preferred traditional vegetables. Results from multinomial <em>logit </em>model revealed that age of the farmer, education level, gender, and farming experience were determinants of smallholder farmers’ vegetable preferences for integration into the PPT plots. The contribution of these determinants to farmer preferences varied across different vegetables where the contribution of the market value of the vegetable in selection diminished with while the effect of farmers’ age. Overall, male farmers preferred capital-intensive and market-oriented vegetables in compared to their female counterparts. We conclude that gender and geographic location play a pivotal role in farmers` crop selection for integration in the PPT. Targeted awareness creation pathways accounting for these factors will be critical for wider adoption of the PPT.</p> FO Ouya, JO Pittchar, F Chidawanyika, ZR Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Character associations and path analysis in Bambara groundnut grown in mid-altitude highland of Jos-Plateau, Nigeria <p>Bambara groundnut is an indigenous African legume, which is the third most important after peanut and cowpea in terms of consumption and socio-economic impact in semi-arid Africa. There is, therefore, the need for adequate research attention, especially with regard to yield improvement. In this study, nine genotypes of the Bambara groundnut (Cream with white eye, Black with white eye, Cream with brown eye, Cream with black eye, Cream with black eye and brown stripes, Cream with brown stripes, Deep-brown with white eye, Cream with black stripes and Brown white eye) were evaluated at Kuru, Nigeria (Lat. 09<sup>0</sup> 44'N, Long. 08<sup>0</sup> 47'E, altitude 1, 217 m above sea level) in 2018 in order to determine character associations and to analyse the pathways to grain yield. Results showed that emergence rate, plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf area index, relative growth rate, harvest index, number of pods per plant and shelling percentage were positively correlated with total grain yield. The Results of the path coefficient analysis showed that the number of days to onset of flowering exerted the highest direct influence on total grain yield. Then followed by harvest index, emergence rate, 100-seed weight, net assimilation rate, shelling%, days to 50% flowering, relative growth rate, number of seeds per pod, and number of pods per plant. The highest total effect (0.988) was observed in 100-seed weight, followed by days to first flowering (0.837), days to 50% flowering (0.701), shelling % (0.658), emergence rate (0.574), number of pods per plant (0.557), relative growth rate (-0.375), net assimilation rate (0.226), harvest index (0.183) and number of seeds per pod (- 0.126) in that order. The study demonstrated that combining correlation and path coefficient analyses is important in determining reliable trait associations that can be used for developing superior genotypes. Therefore, days to first flower, days to 50% flowering, harvest index, emergence rate and 100-seed weight should be considered as major selection indices for the improvement of the Bambara groundnut in the Jos-Plateau environment in Nigeria.</p> OAT Namo, A Damfami Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Microbiological and chemical profiles of retail falafel sandwich in Jordan <p>Microbiological contamination of food poses a significant risk to public health, as a popular ready-to-eat food in the Middle-East, falafel sandwiches require no processing. When ingested, their microbiological integrity is extremely important to the population’s health. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the microbial load of falafel sandwich and its basic components, which is an important indicator of hygiene and safety; to that effect, we tested 120 samples from different restaurants in Amman, Jordan (30 falafel sandwiches, 30 tahini salad, 30 hummus, and 30 falafel). The collected samples were transferred to the laboratory in the ice box and tested for microbiological and chemical analysis (pH and titratable acidity). Appropriate media were used in the enumeration: Plate Count Agar, De Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe agar (MRS), Violet Red Bile Lactose Agar, and Baird-Parker Agar for mesophilic aerobes, lactic acid bacteria, coliforms, and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, respectively. In all samples, the average pH was ≥ 5 and the average titratable acidity (as citric acid) was ≥ 0.55%, thus permitting the growth of many microorganisms. The samples were assessed for aerobic plate count (APC) and the counts of coliforms (CC), lactic acid bacteria (LABC), yeasts and molds (YMC), <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>count (<em>S. aureus</em>), as well as for the presence of <em>Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) </em>and <em>Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes). </em>Average APC of ‘falafel’ sandwich, ‘tahini’ salad, ‘hummus’, and falafel were 6.4, 6.3, 5.8, and 2.9 log<sub>10</sub> CFU/g respectively; average CC was 2.3, 2.8,1.9, and 0.6 log<sub>10</sub> CFU/g, respectively; average LABC was 5.6, 5.5, 5.3, and 2.4 log<sub>10</sub> CFU/g, respectively; average YMC was 4.2, 3.8, 3, and 0.7 log<sub>10</sub> CFU/g, respectively; average <em>S. aureus </em>was 2.09,1.68,0, and 0.3 log<sub>10</sub> CFU/g, respectively. <em>S. enterica </em>and <em>L. monocytogenes </em>were not isolated from any sample. This might be due of the exposure to high temperatures during the frying process, ‘falafel’ samples had the lowest microbial load. The study revealed through these microbial counts, that hummus and tahini salad are most likely to introduce microorganisms to falafel sandwich.</p> SM Abidi, MI Yamani Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Morphometric variations among <i>Opsaridium microlepis</i> (Günther, 1864) from Lake Malaŵi migrating to different rivers for breeding <p>Fish is an important resource in Malawi as a source of food for the majority as it provides affordable source of dietary animal protein as well as income. A number of fish species in the Malawi water bodies have their population dwindling. One of the species under serious threat of extinction is the <em>Opsaridium microlepis </em>– a potamodromous fish species that migrate to the rivers during its spawning period and its management seems a nightmare. A number of studies reveal contrasting results on genetic makeup and morphological aspect of this fish species. With changes in the ecosystems of the rivers connecting Lake Malawi, coupled with absence of strong management measures in the major rivers adjoining the lake, problems have arisen in the conservation of potamodromous fish species. This necessitated the present study to investigate if the morphological features of stocks of <em>O. microlepis </em>are the same or not and if they have changed to adapt to changes in the ecosystems. One hundred and eleven <em>O. microlepis </em>fish samples were collected from Linthipe River (48), Bua River (59) and North Rumphi River (4) monthly from March to August 2020 using trawled and static gillnets. Twenty-four morphometric characteristics were measured to determine if any morphological differences existed among the fish samples from the three rivers. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to compare morphology of the fish. Results of the study showed no significant morphological differences among stocks from the three rivers, implying that <em>O. microlepis </em>in these rivers belong to same stock morphologically. The study reveals that the species do not differ morphologically even though they migrate to different rivers for breeding. The study further notes that numerous activities taking place along the tributary rivers (as observed during the study) such as modification of fishing gears as well as fishing methods and the deterioration of the spawning grounds due to siltation from soil erosion caused by deforestation and agriculture, are putting the potamodromous fish species such as <em>O. microlepis </em>under serious threat. The study recommends that the populations of <em>O. microlepis </em>from the rivers can be managed equally since they are morphologically similar. Adopting uniform catchment management and sustainable exploitation of <em>O. microlepis </em>(such as regulations on mesh sizes and fishing methods, closing the rivers from fishing activities during spawning period, river bank and catchment management and restoration) with the aim of conserving the stocks from further overexploitation in these rivers is recommended so that the communities and the people at large continue to utilize the resource sustainably and at the same time, sustaining their livelihood.</p> DD Khumbanyiwa, E Kaunda, W Singini, WL Jere, M Limuwa Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Application of digital image processing method for roasted coffee bean quality identification: A systematic literature review <p>In coffee processing, there are several important stages, one of which is roasting. The roasting process is an important determinant of coffee quality. Determination of coffee quality can be done using digital image processing methods to produce parameters and quality classifications precisely, make images of better quality so that photos and moving images can be easily understood. This analysis uses a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) for the identification, evaluation, and interpretation of all available research results on the topics discussed. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the main quality parameters and the best digital image processing methods used in classifying the quality of roasted coffee beans. From the results of the analysis of 31 journals, it is known that the parameters for evaluating the quality of roasted coffee are color parameters, texture parameters, and shape parameters. The color parameters consist of Red Green Blue (RGB), Grayscale, Hue Saturation Intensity (HSI), and L*a*b* features. The texture parameters consist of energy, entropy, homogeneity, and contrast. As for the feature shape parameters, they are area, circumference, diameter, and percentage of roundness. Results of the analysis show that the main parameter that plays an important role in assessing the quality of roasting coffee is the color parameter. This can be seen from the function of the color parameter in quality identification based on the image of the roasted coffee beans. The quality parameters used are image capture, image resolution, training data, testing data, iterations, and accuracy values. In addition, the resulting image processing methods used for quality classification include Backpropagation (BP), Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ), and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). Based on results of the analysis, the best method for classifying the quality of roasting results is Backpropagation, and it is known that the accuracy value of this method has a high range of values.</p> I Santoso, EA Yuanita, RS Karomah Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of diurnal and seasonal patterns of feeding behaviour of cows and calves at Neudamm Farm in Namibia <p>This paper aims to compare the seasonal and diurnal feeding behaviour of cows and calves at Neudamm Farm in central Namibia. Seasonal bite rates of cows, diurnal bites of cows and calves, and diet composition and preference were assessed and compared. Ten cows and ten calves were followed and observed from a distance, in the morning and in the afternoon. The observations were done on the same cows during the wet and dry seasons while calves were only observed during the wet season. The number of bites taken by each animal within a continuous period of 5 minutes was recorded. Herbaceous plant inventory was done in the foraging area using a step-point method. Each herbaceous plant intercepted was assessed for evidence of grazing and its life form was recorded. Bite rates were compared between morning and afternoon, and between seasons using a two-sample t-test. Preference for life forms and species were tested using a <em>Chi-Square </em>test. The morning bite rate of 38 bites/minute of cows during the wet season was significantly higher than that of the morning dry season of 34.9 bites/minute. This is attributed to the high abundance of nutritious forage resources during the wet season when animals did not have to do much searching compared to the dry season. Afternoon bite rates of cows did not significantly differ between seasons. Morning bite rates were significantly lower in the mornings than in the afternoons in winter. This was because cold morning temperatures slowed down animal feeding rates but increased with the progression of the day. Bite rates of calves did not significantly differ between morning and afternoon during the wet season because they were still learning to forage while being dependent on the mothers for milk. Cattle preferred <em>Schmidtia pappophoroides, Eragrostis trichophora, Heteropogon contortus </em>and <em>Eragrostis nindensis </em>due to their palatability and high grazing value. <em>Nidorella resedifolia</em>, despite being very abundant, was avoided because it contains a toxic alkaloid.</p> CB Simataa, I Mapaure Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of rosemary and thyme extracts on the fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation, quality and some fat health related indices of chicken burger <p>The current study aimed to include natural ingredients (rosemary and thyme extracts, as well as a combination of them) in the formulation of chicken burgers in an attempt to improve their fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation, quality and some fat health related indices. Four batches of chicken burgers were manufactured: product 1: control burger, product 2: burger fortified with rosemary extract, product 3: burger fortified with thyme extract, product 4: burger fortified with rosemary and thyme extracts. The samples were analyzed for their chemical characteristics (moisture, ash, fat, protein, and carbohydrates), fatty acid profile, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) to determine lipid oxidation, and nutritional quality of chicken burger by calculating the atherogenic and thrombogenic indices, polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid (PUFA/SFA) ratio, and omega-6 / Omega-3 (ω 6/ω 3) fatty acid ratio. The results showed that the incorporation of extracts in the chicken burger caused a significant decrease in the percentage of trans-fat from 0.06 to 0.02 and atherogenic (AI) and thrombogenic (IT) indices from 0.30 to 0.26 and from 0.79 to 0.72, respectively. A non-significant decrease in saturated fatty acid (SFA) from 27.33 to 27.23was noted. However, a significant increase in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) from 15.36 to 19.67, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) from 47.28 to 48.88, ω 6/ω 3 ratio from 13.49 to 15.85, and PUFA/SFA ratio from 0.56 to 0.72 in chicken burger was observed. Whereas addition of the extracts had a variable influence on the sensory characteristics of the freshly prepared and stored burgers. It was concluded that the fortification of chicken burger with rosemary and thyme extracts improved the nutritional and quality properties and gives a desirable change in sensory evaluation.</p> M Mebarkia El hadja, B Al-Abdullahal-Sawalha, R Mashal Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Characterising family farms and their constraints and agroecological intensification options: A case study from the Sahelian Zone, Niger <p>Family farms play an important role in food security and nutrition in West Africa. Family farms are rapidly changing and face many constraints. Thus, characterizing them is necessary for policy purposes. This study aimed to characterise family farms in Niger, focusing on the current constraints to family farms and existing agroecological intensification (AEI) options. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire administered to 108 family farms across the selected six study locations. We used descriptive statistics to characterise the family farms and the factorial analysis of mixed data (FAMD) and the Hierarchical Clustering of Principal Components (HCPC) to identify the types of family farms. Results showed that family farms, on average, encompass three households, and the majority (87.2%) of the family farms surveyed were managed by married persons where 25.7% of whom are female. Agriculture remains the primary source of income for 98.2% of people in the study locations, and the main second source of family income (47.7%) is animal husbandry. Family farms are mainly characterised by the presence of the main field (MF) (98%) led by the heads of households and the presence of the women fields (WF) (78%) led by the women. Regarding farm size, the average MF and the WF farm sizes were 3.0 ha and 1.5 ha, respectively. The main identified constraints to family farms were soil fertility decline (84.33%), a recurrent early end of the rainy season (84.33%), farmers’ low income (41.15%), and limited access to the market (24.70%). Twelve potential AEIs options across the study area were explored. In the MF, the major AEI options practised by farmers were: the application of organic manure as fertilizer (73.27%), cereallegume intercropping (68.83%), and Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (35.85%). Whereas in the WF, the AEI practices were the application of organic manure (55.28%), and cereal-legume intercropping (28.98%). Co-building an integrative approach that combines multiple AEI options in the same field is necessary to tackle the main drivers of the farming systems.</p> MS Sani Issa, AA Saidou, NS Jangorzo, M Karembe Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Ecological footprint of different laying hen production systems in San Jeronimo Municipality Antioquia, Colombia <p>In recent years, fish production has increased worldwide due to population growth and consumer interest in this type of product, proving an increase in the waste generated, with concomitant negative impact on the environment. Ecological footprint methodology is one of the sustainability indicators most used for assessing process environmental impact. This technique quantifies the effect of anthropogenic activities on the environment concerning water, forest products, infrastructure and carbon footprint, providing integral, comparable and reliable results. In this study, the environmental impact generated by taking advantage of red tilapia (<em>Oreochromis Spp</em>.) viscera to produce chemical silage and its implementation in the feeding of laying hens was determined, using the ecological footprint methodology as an indicator of sustainability. The productive system consisted of a red tilapia (<em>Oreochromis ssp</em>.) production farm located in the municipality of San Jerónimo, Antioquia (Colombia). The productive variables of the laying hens, laying percentage, egg weight and feed conversion ratio were evaluated. This chemical silage production process generates a reduction of 1.493 kg of CO<sub>2</sub> per month compared to that generated by fresh viscera and are discharged into shallow dumps. Additionally, the main categories that generate the greatest impact on the production system are the use of natural resources and wastewater disposal. On the other hand, the productive variables of laying hens of the Isa Brown breed were not significantly affected by the inclusion of chemical silage at the 95% significance level, maintaining the percentage of laying and improving feed conversion. It was concluded that the use of fish by-products to produce feed for laying hens generates a reduction in the environmental load when compared to conventional waste disposal processes (landfill disposal). Red tilapia (<em>Oreochromis Spp</em>.) viscera chemical silage can be used as an alternative protein substitute in feeding laying hens for improved production performance.</p> YS Gaviria, LF Londoño, JE Zapata Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of food-based nutrition intervention on management of non-communicable diseases among people living with HIV in Busia County Hospital, Kenya <p>Good nutrition optimizes benefits of ART (Antiretroviral therapy) and increases treatment adherence, both prolongs lives of PLHIV (NASCOP, 2014), without proper care and management it exposes them to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Key objective; to determine the effect of food-based nutrition intervention on the management of NCDs among PLHIV in Busia. The design was experimental using randomized control trial approach. The control group had 30 subjects who were fed on Plumpy‘nut while treatment group had 30 subjects who were fed on Power Porridge (PROLCARMIV), for 60 days. Subjects were purposively selected from the Comprehensive Care Clinic (CCC) in Busia County referral hospital- Kenya, further study subjects were randomly selected using simple random sampling, assigned equally to each group. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire analyzed using Social Package for Statistical Sciences version 26. Prevalence of NCDS; 75.5% hypertension; 15.6% diabetes and 8.9% heart disease; post-intervention BMI for intervention group increased; laboratory analyses; Hb post–intervention results; mean levels were higher in intervention group (M=13.62, SD=2.69) p-value = 0.487 compared to control group (12.69, SD=1.24), p value= 0.471. Random Blood Sugar (RBS) were higher in control group (5.96, SD=1.70), with p value= &lt;0.001, intervention group (M=5.79, SD=1.02), with p-value = &lt;0.001. Post-intervention liver function test; TB, AST, and ALT showed higher SD indicating variability. Lipid profile; showed TC mean (4.39 (0.95) for control group; a mean of 3.78(0.94) for the intervention group: p=0.017; HDL for the control group with a mean of 1.58(0.57): mean of 1.14 (0.53) for the intervention group with p=0.036: TG for the control group, mean of 1.50 (0.50): for the intervention group with p= 0.017: mean of 1.14: (0.46): LDL for control group with a mean of 2.26 (0.66): mean of 1.43 (0.42): for the intervention group with p= 0.041: TC, HDL, TG, and LDL all exhibited significant decreases. Kidney function tests; no significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion; Compliance for PROLCARMIV; 82.5%, attracting uptake of CCC services. PROLCARMIV can manage NCDs among PLHIV, answering the alternative hypothesis, this would inform policy.</p> R Akelola, E Wamukoya, J Situma Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000