African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development <p>The <em>African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development</em> (AJFAND) is a peer reviewed scholarly journal. The journal is envisaged to enable dissemination and sharing of food and nutrition information issues on the continent. It taps social science, biochemical, food and nutrition related research and information. It also addresses issues related to agriculture, food security, and nutrition that affect Africa’s development and people’s livelihoods. It targets and is intended to serve the research and intellectual community; African and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs); African and development oriented bilateral and multilateral agencies; and African public institutions working towards solving food and nutrition problems through sound policies, and addressing issues that affect the African continent. AJFAND is open to both African and non-African contributors. Besides academic research, the journal provides an avenue for sharing information on national-level food and nutrition programs. QUALITY remains the driver of our efforts and not QUANTITY. The journal carries out a major mentoring and capacity building role for budding African scholars, and also gives visibility to African scholars in general by highlighting and sharing their work internationally.</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal:<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>&nbsp;</p> en-US <p><a href=""></a></p><p>Published material in the AJFAND is covered by copyright. Authors transfer all rights to the journal upon publication. The Editor-in-Chief should grant permission for use/reprint of any published material in AJFAND.</p><p>AJFAND is open access and published under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International license (see Copyright Statement on the AJFAND website).</p> (Prof. Ruth K. Oniang'o, PhD) (Prof. Ruth K. Oniang'o) Wed, 28 Apr 2021 12:40:09 +0000 OJS 60 Dietary intake and cognitive development among children in Kisumu County, Kenya <p>Varied nutrient-dense and high-quality diet are key to ideal growth and cognitive function in the early years of life. Nutrient deficiency can lead to negative functional effects of the brain and poor cognitive function. High rates of poverty in developing countries predispose children to malnutrition. This study aimed at exploring factors associated with dietary intake and cognitive development among children in Kisumu County, Kenya. This was a cross-sectional study survey that recruited 192 children aged less than 24 months. Food frequency questionnaire and Bayleys Scale for Infant Development kit was used to collect data. It was revealed that a total of 51% were girls with 30% aged below 6 months. Only 12% had cognitive scores above average. Child cognitive scores were linked with age (p= 0.022), carbohydrate (p=0.021), fat (p=0.011) and iron (p=0.022) intake. Only 34% and 32% of children consumed diets adequate in proteins and iron, respectively. Of children aged above 18 months, only 13% consumed diet adequate in iron. Factors associated with carbohydrate intake included: mother's marital status (p=0.036) and her level of income (p=0.028) while protein intake related to the type of housing (p=0.013). Fat intake was linked with the mother's marital status (p=0.009) and her level of income (p=0.001) while the iron intake was linked to the mother's level of income (p=&lt;0.001) and her educational level (p&lt; 0.001). Vitamin A intake was linked to the ability to pay rent by the household (p=0.016). Further analysis revealed that children whose fathers were earning more than Kenya shillings 3000.00 per month had 0.2 times lower risk of being above average on cognitive scores compared to those whose fathers were earning less than Kenya shillings 3000.00 per month, while those with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate had 8 times more risk of having cognitive scores above average compared to those whose diets were adequate. In conclusion, majority of children consumed diets inadequate in protein and iron while 12% of children had cognitive scores above average. Mother’s marital status, eduation and income influenced child’s dietary intake while their age groups and father’s income were associated with child's cognitive outcomes. Policies to enhance parental education and income level should be formulated to improve child's dietary and cognitive outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Dietary intake, Cognitive development, Children, Bayleys Scale for Infant Development, Malnutrition</p> C.J. Sawe, W. Kogi-Makau, G.A.K. Ettyang, C.O. Kimamo Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Change in soy and nutrition knowledge and perceptions of smallholder South African farmers after attending a single one day soy nutrition training workshop: A pilot study <p>The main aim of this pilot study was to assess smallholder soy farmers’ knowledge and perceptions of soy immediately before and after participating in a one-day soy nutrition training workshop. A pre-post study design was used among a convenience sample of 78<br>soy smallholder farmers from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (SA). A total of 78 men and five women participated in the training, but&nbsp; because only five women attended, gender comparison analysis was not carried out. A soy nutrition training workshop, including soy cooking demonstrations, tasting, recipe development, that is based on the Social Cognitive Theory, was implemented for eight&nbsp; consecutive hours with one break of 30 minutes. Pre- and post-quantitative data measuring,soy knowledge and perceptions were<br>collected using a modified version of a survey, tested for face and content validity and reliability, and used previously in other research study projects by the same authors among low-resource communities in SA. The data from the pre and post questionnaires indicated that only 41% of the soy smallholder farmers used soy in the household and mainly in meat dishes. The rest of the harvested soy was either sold or used for animal feed. The mean±standard deviation (SD) score of taste preference changed significantly (p=0.002) from 4.60±0.84 before, to 4.93±0.13 after the training (p=0.002) and the majority of the participants perceived it was easy to prepare soy foods; 82.1% and 88.5% before and after the training, respectively (p=0.013). Participants’ soy knowledge improved significantly (p&lt;0.001) from a mean± (SD) score of 26.33±4.06 before to 32.00±9.46 after the intervention, indicating a significant improvement of 5.67±9.11 [13.83%] in the total score. The results from this study indicate that there is a need for nutrition education programs for smallholder farmers. Thus, improvement in both soy knowledge and preference should result in more soy being consumed first for household nutritional needs before giving it to either animals or sell it on the market. Since smallholder farmers’ nutrition education can impact both food insecurity and nutritional status improvement in one setting, more interventions of this kind are needed to further advance the frontier of this niche area of research.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: nutrition education, smallholder famers, soy training, South Africa emerging farmers, Knowledge perception </p> W. Oldewage-Theron, S. Morales , A. Egal Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Fermented sorghum porridge fortified with Moringa leaf powder and baobab fruit pulp cured children from moderate acute malnutrition in Benin <p>Inappropriate feeding, too early introduction of complementary foods and restriction in food selection are a major cause of malnutrition among young children in developing countries. Food-to-food fortification is a good strategy to enhance the nutritional quality of children’s diet. This strategy is more and more promoted because it allows delivery of micronutrients to a large population in a cost-effective manner. The present study aimed at testing the effect of the consumption of sorghum porridge fortified with moringa leaf powder and baobab fruit pulp on the nutritional status of children aged 6 to 59 months in Northern Benin. A two-week intervention was implemented in Tanguiéta (Benin) among children affected by moderate acute malnutrition, using 400 g of fermented sorghum<br>porridge fortified with 15 g of a designed mix of moringa leaf powder and baobab fruit pulp. Sixty-three children aged 6–59 months who had malnutrition assessed by anthropometry were randomly selected and assigned to a treatment or a control group. Children in the treatment group consumed the fortified formula daily for two weeks in a nutritional rehabilitation hearth whereas those in the control group had their habitual diet. Their nutritional status was evaluated using anthropometry. Recovery rate and average weight gain of children were computed. Results show that daily consumption of the fortified food for two weeks did not significantly (P&gt; 0.05) increase children’s weight in treatment vs. control. However, average weight gain was 9.85 g/kg/day in the treatment group and total recovery rate at risk of malnutrition and moderate acute malnutrition was 62.50% among children who fully complied with the&nbsp; intervention. Fermented sorghum porridge fortified with moringa leaf powder and baobab fruit pulp may be promoted to scale in more regions of Benin as a local affordable and effective therapeutic food against child acute malnutrition. Further investigation of its&nbsp; potential effect while accounting for parasitic infection is needed, to eliminate all risks of intestinal micronutrient&nbsp; malabsorption or malaria and enhance the effectiveness of the fortified food on children’s weight as well as their iron status.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Food-to-food fortification, malnutrition, sorghum porridge, northern Benin</p> E. Nago , J.O. Agossadou, F.J. Chadare, S. Houndji , D.J. Hounhouigan Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Sacha inchi oil (<i>Plukenetia volubilis</i>) stabilized with antioxidants for addition in fresh cheese <p>Sacha Inchi (<em>Plukenetia volubilis)</em> is a nut that has been grown in the Amazon Rainforest and the high Andes Mountains of Peru for countless centuries. The oil of this nut, natural source of omega 3, 6 and 9, has been recognized by its high antioxidant capacity in humans. In this work, oil from Sacha Inchi was fortified with two commercial antioxidants (Ecoprol 2020 and tocopherol) in order to prepare a fresh cheese from cow's milk. The antioxidant capacities of Sacha Inchi and commercial antioxidants were used as preservatives with the purpose to increase the shelf-life of fresh cheese besides nutritional content. The factorial method was necessary to prepare seven formulations in order to find the optimal concentration of the antioxidants added to Sacha Inchi oil and<br>the addition of this oil to the fresh cheese. A sensory analysis was performed to choose the best formulation. The results showed that an oil formulation (F4) with tocopherol (150 mg/kg of oil) and Ecoprol 2020 (1000 mg/kg of oil) displayed the lowest peroxide values (PI: 2.6 ± 0.1 meq O2/kg of oil, p &lt; 0.001) and it was able to reduce approximately 50% of fatty acid oxidation in Sacha Inchi oil in relation to the PI control. Then, F4 was used to elaborate further nine formulations (F’1 – F’9), enriched with Sacha Inchi oil (1 to 4%) to prepare the fresh cheese. Microbiological analysis for all formulations were performed (limits of mold, yeasts, coliforms, salmonella, and&nbsp; bacteria) in order to meet the legal requirements of health and safety in Peru. The cheese taste acceptability was determined through the sensorial evaluation, which reached 7.2 according to the 9- hedonic scale for F'5. Thus, an optimum fresh cheese was obtained from the formulation (F’5) with 22.5g/L of salt and 2.5% of Sacha Inchi oil enriched with 150 mg/kg of tocopherol and 1000 mg/kg of Ecoprol 2020. The cheese shelf-life was also evaluated, increasing it up from 7 days to 16 days in refrigeration.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: cheese, antioxidant, Sacha Inchi, shelf-life, Ecoprol 2020, tocopherol </p> J.P. Castro, C.F. Vaca , E.J. Soto, J.R. Vargas , G. García, J. Bañon, E.F. Neira, T. Tuesta Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Household food consumption and nutritional status of children aged 6 to 59 Months in Zinder, Niger Republic <p>Malnutrition exists in both urban and rural areas in Niger. An analysis of food and nutrition situation was carried out in the urban&nbsp; municipality of Zinder in order to contribute to a better understanding of the situation. This work was done from February to March 2018, at the household level, sampled by probabilistic method. The study involved 168 children from 6 to 59 months selected from 150 households in 15neighborhoods in the urban municipalities of Zinder. An analysis of the Food Consumption Score and Household Food Diversity Score showed acceptable food consumption and high food diversity respectively in58.7% and 67.3% of households. Furthermore, the results showed that the socio-economic characteristics that determined Score of food consumption were the main activities of heads of households and their wives. Food diversity was generally acceptable, although 2.7 % of households still had low dietary diversity in the study area. Also, food diversity remained low overall for nearly 8.9% of children with a rate of 6.0% for&nbsp; households headed by a woman. Nevertheless, the latter female-headed households had an estimated 13.7% of children with average individual food diversity. The prevalence of acute global malnutrition is 13.1% with the severe form at3%. It should be noted that girls were much more affected by this severe form (3.4%) compared to 2.5% for boys. However, stunting was more prevalent in males than in females with 57.5% and 46.6%,respectively. Moderate form accounting for 28.4% in females compared to 17.5% in males. This&nbsp; nutritional status reflects the relatively acceptable food situation in which these children lived. Furthermore, the appreciation of different foods and modes of consumption have shown on the one hand that the diet remains monotonous. On the other hand, this analysis revealed that cereal-based dishes accompanied by vegetable/leafy sauces predominated in these households in the study area. This situation exposes the members of these households and especially young children to the risk of malnutrition.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Characterization, food consumption, food diversity, nutritional status, children, household, socioeconomics, Zinder </p> D.H. Oumarou , H.A. Issaka, A. Balla Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Microbiological quality evaluation of ready-to-eat mixed vegetable salad, food ingredients and some water samples from a restaurant in Accra: A case study <p>One serious threat to public health in both developed and developing countries is the microbial contamination of food. This problem poses a great challenge and consequently has economic implications. Causes of microbial contamination are diverse and these may<br>be natural, environmental, or technological. The microbiological quality of most readyto- eat foods is of great significance to human&nbsp; health because they require minimal or no processing when consumed. The aim of this research was to investigate the microbiological quality of some ready-to-eat mixed vegetable salad foods, ingredients as well as the wash water samples of an urban restaurant located in Accra, Ghana. A total of thirty (30) samples categorized into mixed vegetable salads, foods and water obtained from an urban restaurant in the national capital of Ghana, Accra. They were analyzed at the microbiology laboratory and food microbiology&nbsp; la&nbsp; Loratories of School of Allied&nbsp; Health Sciences (UHAS) and Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Food Research Institute (CSIR-FRI), Ghana, respectively. Standard microbiological methods that are per International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Methods and Nordic Committee on Food Analysis Methods (NMKL) were used in determining the presence and levels of bacteria and fungi. Data obtained were transformed from standard to logarithmic forms and reported as mean+standard deviations. The aerobic plate count<br>samples ranged from 0- 4.73 log 10 CFU/g. E-coli counts also ranged between 0- 2.53 log 10 CFU, while Bacillus cereus counts were very low at 0-&lt;10 log 10 CFU/g. Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus counts were also very low ranging from 0- 1.0 log10 CFU/g. Enterobacteriaceae counts also ranged from 0- 1.90 log10 CFU/g. Molds and yeasts counts were generally low and ranged from&nbsp; 0- 2.48 log 10 CFU/g and 0- 1.0 log10 CFU/g, respectively. None of the samples tested contained Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. Fungal microbial loads were minimal given the quantities, and were deleterious to the health of consumers. The study revealed that the bacterial loads on mixed vegetable salads, ingredients and water samples used and served by an urban restaurant in Accra were within safe limits according to American Public Health Association (APHA) and International Commission for Microbiological<br>Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) guidelines and, therefore, good for human consumption.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Ready-to-eat, Salads, water, Vegetables, Restaurant, Ghana, Microbial contamination, Consumer safety </p> N.K. Kortei , T. Annan , L. Quansah , G. Aboagye, P.T. Akonor, C. Tettey Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Challenges facing emerging aquaculture entrepreneurs in south africa and possible solutions <p>Despite aquaculture being hailed as the fastest growing farming sector in the world, South African aquaculture is still lagging behind. This article aims to highlight challenges (mostly beyond their control) that South Africa’s emerging aquaculture entrepreneurs have to endure in order to find a breakthrough into the industry. Availability of necessary resources such as land, water, infrastructure, financial support and access to markets, as well as crime are among challenges faced by these entrepreneurs on a daily basis. Limited human resources in capacity building, skills and aquaculture expertise also hinders the development and expansion of aquaculture in South Africa. Complex legislation governing aquaculture further limits the development of this sector to prospective investors. Fish and machinery theft in fish farms has an adverse effect, which had resulted in many enterprises closing down in recent years. South Africa is not a traditional fish-eating nation and this phenomenon has seen many emerging entrepreneurs struggling to locally commercialize&nbsp; their produce. It is well known that fish consumption provides human nutrition with essential nutrients necessary for normal body function. Thus, aquaculture has the potential to contribute to food and nutrition security and alleviate poverty in rural communities. However, plenty of initiatives need to be developed by government and the private sector to develop a sustainable aquaculture industry. These initiatives should involve the establishment of an aquaculture friendly legislation that would support emerging aquaculture entrepreneurs. Several financial institutions view aquaculture as a high-risk business, and as a consequence, decline financial support or loan requests from emerging farmers. Focused research as a strategic initiative to develop aquaculture species that would be first priority for local markets is encouraged. This article explores the challenges facing emerging entrepreneurs and suggests possible solutions that might assist in the development of the aquaculture sector in South Africa. We postulate that constructive and regular engagements between the government and private sector is a key to a sustainable and prosperous aquaculture sector in South Africa.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> young entrepreneurs, infrastructure, legislation, finance, land, aquaculture, theft, South Africa </p> M.J. Madibana, C.H. Fouché , C.M. Mnisi Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers and caregivers on infant and young child feeding in Peri-Urban Zones of Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso <p>Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of mothers/caregivers on infant and young child feeding are key factors for optimal nutritional status, health and growth of the children. A community-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted during<br>January 2017 to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices on infant and young child feeding (IYCF) of mothers/ caregivers who lived in peri-urban areas of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina-Faso. This study was carried out before a nutrition education-based intervention<br>and included 245 mothers/ caregivers that were randomly selected in the peri-urban communities of Bobo-Dioulasso. A semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire developed based on Food and Agriculture Organization knowledge, attitudes and practices assessment method was used to collect KAP and socio-economic data. Analyses were performed using SPSS version 20. For this study, authorization was obtained from the regional directorate of health of the Hauts-Bassins region. Verbal consent was obtained after the participants had been informed about the study objectives. Among the 245 study participants, 55.1% were aged less than 30 years. More than 3 out of 4 mothers/caregivers (76.3%) were Muslim and 59.2% of them were illiterate. Almost all mothers/caregivers (98.8%) had adequate knowledge for breastfeeding and 87.9% of them knew about exclusive breast feeding up to 6 months. In addition, 91.8% of mothers/caregivers reported that they gave colostrum at birth. Furthermore, 67.5% of the mothers started breastfeeding within one hour after delivery. Based on mothers/caregivers’ report on complementary foods consumed by 6-59 months&nbsp; children in the previous 24h before the interview, cereals were the most reported consumed food group (89.8%) followed by meat and fish products (28.6%). This study found that mothers/caregivers had adequate knowledge about IYCF in general. However,<br>mothers/caregivers’ practice of complementary feeding was inappropriate. Cereals were the food group consumed by most of children aged 6-59 months raising the needs for interventions, such as cooking demonstrations during postnatal visits in health facilities, to improve complementary feeding in this population.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> IYCF, knowledge, attitude, and practices; low income countries; Burkina Faso </p> A. Hien, J.W. Some, I.T. Traore, C. Meda , B. Traore , I. Savadogo Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Food security policy choices: A review of the usefulness of public policy taxonomies <p>This paper addresses the "dependent variable" problem in food security policies, namely the difficulty in classifying food security&nbsp; policies that limits comparative policy studies. Policy comparisons require criteria that are general enough for broad application but<br>sensitive to the context. A rigorous and objective basis for comparisons would allow for studying how policies, and food security policies in particular, emerge. This is important in Africa as, in the past, food security and nutrition crises have been attributed to the<br>failure of government policies. This paper reviews the main key available public policy classifications based on their predictability, mutual-exclusivity and relevance. These include Lowi's and Wilson's typologies, the agricultural policies' classification by Norton and the FAO-FAPDA classification. The review found that available typologies do not accommodate multi-sectoral actions and are not entirely applicable to food security public policy classification. The domain shift from food policy to food security, and more recently to food systems demands that all elements in the food system to be taken into consideration in the policy process. This limits the use of policies as "dependent variables" and hence the study of how they emerge, particularly in Africa. A critique of available policy classes shows that these cannot be treated as "dependent variables". It is argued that a potential solution to the "dependent variable" problem of food security policies lies in the development of a taxonomy, simplifying their complexity with analytical shortcuts. Having reviewed Candel and Daugbjergs’ recent taxonomy, refinements are proposed to be applied in the African context. The proposed taxonomy represents an alternative to classify food security policies in Africa along four core dimensions. This classification offers prospects for researchers to study what factors drives policy-classes in one direction or the other, along the four dimensions. Although<br>the scales and calibration of the four dimensions will need to be developed and tested, the proposed typology offers a way to treat the dimensions as “dependent variables”.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: policy-classification, food-security policy, food systems s, policy-taxonomy, Lowi, Wilson, dependent variable problem, Africa</p> F. Fossi , S.L. Hendriks Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Diagnostique des pratiques de fumage de la viande de poulet (<i>Gallus gallus</i>) dans la ville de Lome au Togo <p>Le fumage traditionnel du poulet est une pratique moins répandue au Togo comparativement au fumage du poisson. De plus en plus, cette pratique devient une activité économique qui occupe bon nombre de femmes et satisfait une frange de consommateurs. Cette étude visait à décrire et à caractériser l’activité de fumage de la viande de poulet à travers ses composantes telles que les acteurs, les procédés et les conditions de production dans la ville de Lomé au Togo. Pour ce faire, une enquête exploratoire par ratissage systématique des acteurs (processors de fumage) et un suivi des étapes technologiques ont été réalisés. L’étude a révélé que la&nbsp; production du poulet fumé à Lomé est une activité menée uniquement par des femmes. Près de 53,3% de ces femmes ont été alphabétisées dont 6,7% ont eu à franchir le niveau primaire. Elles transformaient exclusivement les poulets importés sous forme entière ou de découpes en poulets fumés qu’elles commercialisaient elles-mêmes. Le fumage du poulet passait par la décongélation, le lavage, l’assaisonnement et/ou la pré-cuisson et le fumage proprement dit. Il existait une variation dans la conduite de ces opérations unitaires d’une productrice à une autre mais la différence essentielle observée se situait au niveau du traitement appliqué au poulet avant le fumage. La conduite du fumage était empirique utilisant comme combustibles le bois combiné à différents matériaux&nbsp; végétaux principalement la sciure de bois, les coques de noix de coco, les enveloppes de maïs séché et les cartons de récupération. L’équipement utilisé, ékpo ou ado en langue locale Ewé est une sorte de four traditionnel couramment utilisé dans les pratiques culinaires au Togo. La durée moyenne du fumage était environ de 60,33 ± 10,6 min et la température moyenne atteinte à cœur du poulet est de 82,51 ± 5,8 °C. Le poulet fumé, essentiellement transformé pour les besoins de goût, a une durée de conservation assez limitée (&lt;24 heures) à température ambiante. Malgré les conditions de travail précaires et des règles d’hygiène peu observées sur les sites de production, le poulet fumé semble satisfaire les consommateurs. De ce fait, des études complémentaires de caractérisation sensorielle, physicochimique et microbiologique seraient nécessaires pour évaluer la qualité de ces poulets fumés.</p> <p><strong>Mots clés</strong> : poulet fumé, fumage traditionnel, procédé, fumoir traditionnel, Lomé </p> A. Akakpo , S. Edikou , A. Diantom , E. Osseyi Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Seed quality and mycoflora associated with chickpea (<I>Cicer arientinum L</I>.) seed in Ethiopia <p>The study was conducted at Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Haramaya University and Jimma University, Ethiopia. Crop yield is directly associated with the physical and biological quality of planting material or seed. Ninety-nine (99) chickpea seed lot samples were collected for physical purity, seed health and germination tests from major chickpea growing areas in Ethiopia in the 2016/17 cropping season to assess the status of chickpea seed health and quality among subsistence farmers, research stations and seed growers. The seed lots were grouped as researcher saved, farmers saved and seed growers’ saved seed. The maximum physical purity of 97.5% was recorded for the researcher saved seed lots, 90.8% for the seed growers and 87.4 % for the farmers saved seeds. Foreign matters and broken seeds were the most contaminants found in the seed lots. The seed germination percentages were in the range of 96.3% to 98.5% for all seed sources and there were no significant differences among the seed lot samples. A total of seventeen (17) fungi species were isolated from all seed sources with different frequency and amount. These are <em>Fusarium spp., Aspergillus sp., A. niger, A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. candidus, A. fumigatus, Penicillium sp., Rhizopus sp., Verticillium sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Pythium sp., Alternaria sp., Helminthosporium sp. Phylostica sp., Cladosporium sp., Negrospora sp. Aspergillus flavus</em> was found the most dominant&nbsp; with recovery (Relative Density=21.53%, Infection rate=10.36%, and Infection Frequency=25.59 %) from all seed lots. There were high variations in relative density, Infection rate, and Infection frequency among isolated fungi. Ascochyta rabiei the most important&nbsp; chickpea disease was not found in this study. This might relate to the incidence and prevalence of sample collection season/cropping year which was low in expected areas. The current study concluded that there are seed qualities and seed health management issues with regards to different seed sources (farmers, research and private sectors); this entails strong seed quality control and growers’ awareness creation on storage sanitation, seed health test before sowing, and production of healthy crops. To keep the seed health in a better condition, seed growers should keep a wider interval of rotation, develop use of the healthy improved seed, after some&nbsp; generation (4-5), seed grading to avoid loss of physical purity, use of appropriate storage container (ventilated and clean), seed dressing with safe pesticides, and appropriate moisture level for storage (about 14%) should have to keep. Longer storage also gives a chance to contaminate the whole seed and can expose to decay.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Chickpea, fungi, germination, mycoflora, purity, seed health, seed sources </p> G. Getaneh , T. Tefera, F. Lemmessa, S. Ahmed, A. Zewudie Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Microbial and antibiotic contaminants in imported and locally produced honey in the tamale metropolis of the Northern Region of Ghana <p>Honey remains a valued natural product and has been used by humans as an important food source, disease treatment, and a healthy sugar source since ancient times. However, recent reports on the adulteration of honey and honey polluted with contaminants like pesticides, heavy metals, microorganisms as well as antibiotics have gained public attention. Thus, this study aimed to assess the quality and safety of imported and locally produced honey by specifically determining microbial and antibiotic contaminants as well as the beekeeping practices of honey producers within some locations of the Tamale metropolis. A semi-structured questionnaire was designed to gather information on the sources of honey, knowledge of diseases affecting bees, knowledge of contamination of honey, and knowledge of antibiotics use in honey production from honey producers in the study area. The procedures outlined by the Codex Alimentarius Commission were followed to ascertain the microbial quality of the honey samples. Also, the Premi® test kit was used to determine the presence of antibiotics residue in the honey samples. Only eight honey producers were identified in the study area; they all had knowledge on contamination of honey. Only two (25 %) of the honey producers had knowledge on diseases affecting bees and also the use of antibiotics in beekeeping or honey production. Concerning microbial contaminants, <em>Listeria spp., Lactobacillus spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium spp., Campylobacter spp., </em>and<em> Staphylococcus spp</em>. were the microorganisms enumerated upon microbiological quality assessment of 30 honey samples. Furthermore, 27 (90 %) of the honey samples tested positive for the presence of antibiotics residue of which 6 (85.7 %) were sampled from imported source, whilst the remaining 21 (91.3 %) were locally produced. Microbial and antibiotic contaminants found in the honey sampled in the study area support the hypothesis that honey may not be as pure as might be perceived and this might be a public health concern. Again, since there is no available record on the&nbsp; screening or antibiotic residue in honey found on the Ghanaian market, this research is timely and necessary to provide the basis for<br>intervention policies on the minimum limits of antibiotic residues present in honey.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Antibiotic, Campylobacter, Clostridium, Contaminants, Honey, Listeria, Microorganism, Residues, Tamale Metropolis </p> J. Nzeh, O.A. Dufailu , A.K. Obeng , L. Quansah Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Exposure of school children to aflatoxins and fumonisins through maize-based diets in school meals programme in Salima District, Malawi <p>Exposure to aflatoxins and fumonisins contaminated food poses threats to human health, including causation of cancer,&nbsp; immunosuppression, impaired growth, respiratory problems, diarrhea, among others. This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of aflatoxins and fumonisins in maize-based porridge and the estimated intake levels of the contaminants among school going children in selected primary schools in Salima District, Malawi. A total of 496 children and 124 food handlers from 31 primary schools within three Extension Planning Areas(EPAs) under the School Meals Programmes were involved. Consumption and meal preparation data were collected from the respondents using pre-tested questionnaires. Reveal Q+ Kits were used to quantify aflatoxins and fumonisins in sampled meals. Monte Carlo risk simulation using @RiskPalisade software (UK) was used to generate exposure data. All porridge samples had varying detectable levels of mycotoxins. However, there were no significant (P &lt; 0.05) differences in the aflatoxins and fumonisins levels for samples from different EPAs indicating the endemic presence of mycotoxins within the district. Over 95% of the schools used maize as the main ingredient in preparing the porridge with relatively high quantities consumed 610 grams/child/day equivalent to 0.019 kg/kg bodyweight/day regardless of the gender (χ2 = 5.624, P = 0.286) or the age (r = 0.033, P = 0.459) of the respondents. The levels of aflatoxins and fumonisins in the samples ranged from 2.13 to 33.37 µg/kg and &lt; 0.3 to 1.0 ng/kg,&nbsp; respectively. The mean and the 95th percentile intake levels for aflatoxins ranged from 0.2 - 0.60 ng/kg bodyweight/day and 6 – 9.2 µg/kg bodyweight/day for fumonisins, which exceeded the recommended safety levels for children according to standards of European Food Safety Authority (2007) and Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Committee on Food Additives (2008), respectively. The consumption of maize-based porridge was found to expose school-going children to unacceptable levels of mycotoxins whose effects on their health, education and well-being remain unknown. There is a need to educate food handlers on mycotoxins intoxication and proper postharvest handling practices of maizebased foods to prevent exposure. Furthermore,&nbsp; diversification to reduce overreliance on maize-based diets should be promoted.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Aflatoxins, Fumonisins, Exposure, School children, School Meals, Maizebased-porridge </p> G.M. Jere , G.O. Abong, L.G. Njue , K. Masamba, D.G. Omayio Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Quality characterization of bread retailed in Nairobi County, Kenya: Physico-chemical and microbial profiles <p>With the ever-increasing intake and diversification of bread in sub-Saharan Africa, greater risks of food fraud are posed. The risks are even higher in the urban areas where both the formal and informal retail exist. Product diversification induced by incorporation of different ingredients in bread processing aggravates the risk of malpractices in processing that is evidenced in product quality. The current study employed a cross-sectional survey of bread retailed in the fourteen supermarkets located in Nairobi County, Kenya to determine their physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics. The study showed that brown bread had significantly (p&lt;0.001) higher moisture and water activity, although the fibre and total solids in the brown bread were significantly (p&lt;0.01) lower than the white bread. The greatest variability in the physicochemical attributes was found in the acid insoluble ash, with a coefficient of variation of 82.04%. The highest proportion of the bread, 58.9%, fell short of meeting the regulatory stipulations of the acid insoluble ash.&nbsp; Significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher proportion of the brown bread (60.7%) than the white bread (4.4%) had crude fibre contents less optimal<br>than the regulatory stipulations. The greatest adherence to product quality stipulations was found in yeast and mould counts (100%), moisture content (99.1%) and pH aqueous extract (95.5%). Both the brands of bread and retail outlets had quarter of them recording higher moisture, water activity and total acid insoluble ash than the averages of breads&nbsp; traded in supermarkets; whereas the pH, fibre and total solids were lower (kmean clusters=2). Eight principal components maximally explained product variability in the breads, with similar trends of composition between moisture and protein, and fibre and total solids, whereby the latter pair had a negative&nbsp; correlation with the former. In conclusion, the study found that the formal sector still falls short of product quality regulatory stipulations, pointing to greater need to strengthen surveillance component of food control for this sector.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> White, Brown, Bread, Food control, Cluster Analysis, Proximate, Supermarket, Standards </p> H.A. Aftin , G.O. Abong, M.W . Okoth Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An alternative health crop for South Africa: Purple potato mini tuber production as affected by water and nutrient stress <p>Food security in South Africa ranks as one of the top ten priorities in the country. Potato is a fundamental staple food crop in South Africa, providing essential nutrition. While there are several cultivars currently in production for the potato market, there is a need to explore cultivars that are available, but not utilised within the country. Pigmented potatoes are not regarded as high value on the South African market; however, yield prospects as well as health-promoting benefits could have a positive contribution on the South African Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and on the population’s health. Potato cultivar (cv.) Salad blue (SB) seems to be a drought-tolerant crop with the ability to produce reasonable yields under severe environmental conditions. In order to promote cv. SB as a possible food security option for South Africa, there is a critical need for empirical information, describing some basic horticultural as well as&nbsp; biochemical information and vitamin C presence. This study investigated the potential of pigmented potato SB tubers as an alternative to high yielding white potato for the South African market. Tubers of Solanum tuberosum cv. BP1 and SB, were used for this research. The high amounts in phenolic compounds in SB can be considered to be health-promoting phytochemicals. Anticarcinogenic,&nbsp; antibacterial, antiviral properties have been reported. A greenhouse, bag trial with virus-free plantlets of BP1 and SB cultivars was conducted using three water and nutrient levels and favourable root zone temperature (100% without heat, 100% heated, 50% heated, 25% heated) all grown in coco peat. Cultivar SB showed nearly two-fold yield compared to the control BP1. Methanol extracts of the tubers were assessed for their total polyphenolic, flavanol, and flavonol contents as well as 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)&nbsp; scavenging ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC), anthocyanin and Lascorbic acid assays. The aqueous extract of the SB tubers was found to contain higher level of total polyphenols (320 mg GAE/g), and flavonol (85 mg QE/g) than the extract of the BP1 tubers with values of 173 mg GAE/g (total polyphenol), and 67 mg QE/g (flavonol). Similarly, the methanol extract of the tuber skins also exhibited higher DPPH (818,86 IC50 mg/mL), FRAP (18,19 μmol AAE/g), and TEAC (911,12 μmol TE/g) than the extract of the BP1 with DPPH (595,99 IC50 mg/mL), FRAP (10,86 μmol AAE/g) and TEAC (435,44 μmol TE/g). The present study provides useful information for farmers and health professionals in respect to increased yield and health-promoting benefits of an underutilized potato variety.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Drought tolerant, Food security, Potato, Root Zone Temperature, water, nutrient </p> H. Witbooi , L. Kambizi , O. Oguntibeju Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Farmers’ production constraints, perceptions and preferences of cowpeas in Buhera District, Zimbabwe <p>Many smallholder farmers face crop production constraints, especially under rapidly changing climatic conditions. A survey was carried out to assess farmers’ production constraints, traits, and preferred cowpea varieties. A semi-structured questionnaire was used in a survey of Buhera District, Zimbabwe, in March and April of 2018. Women farmers dominated the survey as they were 52% of the&nbsp; surveyed population, while men occupied 48% of the total population. Eighty-three percent of farmers cited the shortage, unavailability, and cost of fertiliser. Sixteen per cent of farmers acknowledged that they do not have access to quality seeds, and 1% cited labour as the major constraint in cowpea production. Cowpea yield varied from 100 to 500 kg/ha. However, 48% of farmers harvested 200 kg/ha. As for abiotic factors, farmers ranked heat (86%), drought (10%), and soil fertility (4%) as the most important abiotic factors. Ninety-one percent of farmers ranked rust as the most destructive disease, while 2% ranked storage rot, 1% ranked anthracnose, and 1% ranked downy mildew. Eighty-one percent of farmers cited aphids as the main pests, while 3% ranked thrips, 3% ranked legume borers, and 2%<br>ranked pod borers as other pests. Fifty-two percent of farmers preferred varieties that are resistant to diseases such as rust, whereas 48% were not concerned about diseases. As for qualitative traits, 50% of farmers had no specific colour preference, 32% preferred white colour, 14% preferred brown colour, 3% preferred red colour, and 1% preferred tan colour. For quantitative traits, such as grain size, pod size, plant height, and head size, the preferences of farmers varied. Ninety-nine percent of the farmers interviewed preferred cowpea varieties that are bred for drought tolerance, as Buhera District is frequented by intermittent droughts. Farmers’ experience in growing cowpeas ranged from 5 to 30 years. The top ranked accessions were CBC1, IT 18, and Chibundi Chitsvuku, while the least ranked was Kangorongondo. Identified constraints to cowpea farming included lack of education, insect pests, diseases, drought, weeds, harvesting difficulties and a lack of agriculture extension advice. The survey showed that there is a need to breed for biotic factors such as pests and diseases and abiotic factors such as drought and moisture stress.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Buhera District, Constraints, cowpeas, perceptions, preference, variety, Zimbabwe </p> G.V. Nkomo , M.M. Sedibe , M.A. Mofokeng Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding the management practices of animal manure and associated risks of transference of bacterial pathogens to crop vegetables <p>Manure is commonly used in agricultural production in Mauritius, but little is documented on the local management practices. Animal manure, in particular, is a livestock waste that harbors enteric microorganisms which are potentially pathogenic to humans. The objectives of the study were therefore (i) to shed light on the management practices of manure among cattle and poultry farmers&nbsp; (manure producers) and carrot and lettuce growers (manure end-users) and any associated health risks and (ii) to determine the prevalence of human pathogens (diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium perfringens) in manure collected from farmers, vegetable crops fertilized with manure as well as manure-amended soil (MAS) used in crop cultivation. A survey was conducted through in-depth interviews with 16 producers and 36 end-users to gather data on their MMP and their&nbsp; perception of the health risks associated with manure handling. Samples of manure, MAS and vegetables were also microbiologically analyzed to enumerate and/or detect pathogens. Findings revealed that cattle and poultry manure was an important resource for many small-holder vegetable farmers in Mauritius. The manure distributors or end users had no negative perception of the use of untreated manure for vegetable cultivation and were generally unaware of any biosecurity risks arising from the improper handling or subsequent use of untreated manure. Microbiological analyses however showed that 100% of manure samples collected from cattle farms and 58% of the poultry litter samples tested positive for pathogenic E. coli with population ranging from 3.3 to 6.5 Log CFU/g. Manure-borne pathogens were generally undetectable in the analyzed vegetables hence indicating a low risk of foodborne infections. However, the systematic presence of pathogenic E. coli in cattle manure and frequent occurrence in poultry litter clearly point to a need for creating greater awareness amongst farmers on the occupational health risks associated with handling of raw or inadequately decomposed manure. This study therefore points to the health risks associated with enteric pathogens present in raw or untreated raw manure in Mauritius.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Manure Management, Pathogens, E. coli, Salmonella, Cattle, Poultry, Carrot, Lettuce, Mauritius</p> H. Neetoo , D. Goburdhun, A. Ruggoo, S. Pohoroo, A. Pohoroo , K. Reega Copyright (c) Wed, 28 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000