African Journal of Health Professions Education <p>The AJHPE is a journal for health professions educators. It carries research articles, short scientific reports, letters, editorials, education practice, personal opinion and other topics related to the education of health care professionals. It also features African education-related news, obituaries and general correspondence.</p>Other websites related to this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a> Health and Medical Publishing Group en-US African Journal of Health Professions Education <p><span lang="EN-US">Copyright remains in the Author’s name. The work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - Noncommercial Works License. Authors are required to complete and sign an Author Agreement form that outlines Author and Publisher rights and terms of publication. 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This letter should be uploaded as a supplementary file during submission.</span> Design of digital games in health sciences education No Abstract S Titus D Ng’ambi Copyright (c) 2019-11-12 2019-11-12 11 3 74 74 Exploring the affordances of e-learning technologies for dietetics education and training No Abstract J Wilkenson Copyright (c) 2019-11-12 2019-11-12 11 3 75 76 Exploring practising pharmacy graduates’ views on improving the effectiveness of pharmacy education at the University of the Western Cape, South Africa <p><strong>Background.</strong> South African health professional education institutions have a mandate to produce graduates who are able to address priority needs of the healthcare system and larger society. However, evidence of the effective use of public resources by health education institutions is not routinely collected. Practising graduates are a target audience who could provide part of this evidence.</p><p><strong>Objectives.</strong> To explore the views of University of the Western Cape (UWC) pharmacy graduates on the effectiveness of pharmacy education in relation to their current and anticipated practice aspirations.</p><p><strong>Methods.</strong> A cross-sectional electronic survey was administered to UWC pharmacy graduates through the university’s alumni office network.</p><p><strong>Results.</strong> Twenty-five graduates responded, of whom 60% were male (average age 38.9 (standard deviation 9.52) years). One of the strongest themes that emerged was the need for exposing pharmacy students from early on in the curriculum to a broad range of pharmacy and healthcare sectors and addressing real issues in these changing and complex environments. Graduates stressed the importance of the development of generic skills, such as interpersonal skills, leadership, advocacy and innovative problem-solving, which are necessary to effect positive change through collaborative and equitable approaches.</p><p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The findings are aligned with general trends in health education reform, such as embedding undergraduate training in the healthcare system and development of generic skills. Routine and reciprocal communication with graduates might be a valuable resource to monitor and evaluate educational outcomes to strengthen the healthcare system and benefit society.</p> M van Huyssteen A Bheekie Copyright (c) 2019-11-12 2019-11-12 11 3 77 80 Improving the knowledge of clinical forensic medicine among medical graduates: Perspectives of community-service doctors <p><strong>Background.</strong> Teaching and learning of clinical forensic medicine (CFM) in the undergraduate medical curriculum is declining, which results in deficient handling of medicolegal cases by doctors. We previously demonstrated that some community-service doctors (CSDs) lack the required competence to assess and document medicolegal cases involving rape/sexual assault, inebriated drivers and common physical assault.</p><p><strong>Objective.</strong> To obtain the perspectives of CSDs on how medical graduates’ knowledge of CFM can be improved.</p><p><strong>Methods.</strong> This was a descriptive study using a questionnaire survey to gather qualitative data from 150 CSDs.</p><p><strong>Results.</strong> Analysis of the comments of the CSDs revealed three core themes, i.e. training, practical work and exposure.</p><p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> South African courts rely heavily on medicolegal evidence for successful prosecution of physical assault, rape/sexual assault or drunk driving cases. The inept handling, collecting and processing of medicolegal evidence by healthcare providers have been attributed to lack of rigorous training and poor performance standards. It is important that healthcare providers are trained and competent, and possess the skills required to collect evidence and document medicolegal findings correctly.</p> L Fouché J Bezuidenhout A.O. Adefuye Copyright (c) 2019-11-12 2019-11-12 11 3 81 82 Involvement, self-reported knowledge and ways in which clinicians learn about assessment in the clinical years of a medical curriculum <p><strong>Background.</strong> Medical students in their clinical years are assessed by clinician educators (CEs) with different levels of involvement and responsibilities in the assessment process.</p><p><strong>Objective.</strong> To obtain a better understanding from CEs of their involvement in assessment activities in the clinical years of a medical degree programme, their self-reported knowledge of assessment and methods of learning about assessment. This study also explored the potential association between involvement in assessment activities, self-reported knowledge of assessment and employment profile.</p><p><strong>Methods.</strong> An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among CEs involved in assessment of an undergraduate medical programme (years 4 - 6) at a South African university.</p><p><strong>Results.</strong> Fifty-four CEs were contacted and 30 responses (56%) were received. Assessment responsibilities included design of assessment instruments, participation in assessment activities and quality assurance of assessments. The top five assessment activities that CEs were involved in were conducting objective structured practical examinations (OSPEs)/objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), designing multiple-choice questions, being a clinical examiner, conducting portfolio-based oral examinations and marking written assessments. CEs (≥80%) reported having some knowledge of formative and summative assessment, and of validity and reliability. Fewer CEs reported knowledge of constructive alignment, standard setting, item analysis and blueprinting. CEs acquired knowledge of assessment predominantly through informal methods such as practical experience and informal discussion rather than through formal education processes such as attending courses.</p><p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> CEs participated extensively in assessment, but their knowledge with regard to assessment concepts varied.</p> L Pienaar L Wolvaardt F Cilliers V Burch Copyright (c) 2019-11-12 2019-11-12 11 3 83 87 Communication skills and their association with self-reported academic performances of Nigerian pharmacy students <p><strong>Background.</strong> Effective communication is an important attribute for practising pharmacists worldwide. However, little is known about the effects of communication skills on pharmacy students’ academic performances in Nigerian pharmacy schools.</p><p><strong>Objectives.</strong> To identify the distribution of two communication skills, i.e. assertiveness and reticence, among pharmacy students and the association of these skills with the students’ academic performances.</p><p><strong>Methods.</strong> Seven pharmacy schools were randomly sampled in this study. A validated 18-item questionnaire measuring communication constructs, assertiveness and reticence was distributed to eligible students after ethical approval had been obtained. The questionnaire adopted a 5-point Likert scale for responses. Demographic details and self-reported academic performances in the most recent pharmacy examinations were also collected. Descriptive and regression statistics were reported for the distribution of these communication skills and student factors that influence performances, respectively.</p><p><strong>Results.</strong> Pharmacy students (<em>n</em>=1 550) were surveyed. Students were more assertive (mean 3.40) than reticent (mean 3.30) in their communication. Female students were more reticent and less assertive than male students (<em>p</em>≤0.05), but age had no influence on either construct. Being highly assertive was associated with higher grade performances in the three courses examined (<em>p</em>≤0.027 for each course). However, for clinical pharmacy, lower reticence scores were associated with better academic performances (<em>p</em>=0.035). Regression analysis showed that assertive pharmacy students were less likely to report lower grades in all three courses (<em>p</em>≤0.004) and reticent students were more likely to report lower grades in only clinical pharmacy (<em>p</em>=0.042).</p><p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Assertive and reticent communication skills were present among Nigerian pharmacy students. Being assertive and reticent, as well as students’ gender, age and marital status, were associated with the students’ self-reported academic performances.</p> C.M. Ubaka C.V. Ukwe Copyright (c) 2019-11-12 2019-11-12 11 3 88 95 A framework for implementing and sustaining a curricular innovation in a higher education midwifery programme <p><strong>Background.</strong> A competency-based curriculum was adopted for a 1-year post-basic midwifery programme in a small African country with a high maternal and neonatal mortality ratio. Two years after nation-wide implementation, disparities in the enactment of the curriculum were observed within and across the nursing education institutions (NEIs). Such disparities were attributed to lack of a framework in implementing the new curriculum, which jeopardised sustainability of the entire competency-based midwifery programme. A framework for implementing and sustaining a curricular innovation in a higher education midwifery programme was developed.</p><p><strong>Objective.</strong> To develop and validate a framework for implementing and sustaining a curricular innovation in a higher education midwifery programme.</p><p><strong>Methods.</strong> A multiple-methods research design was used to develop the framework, guided by the theory-of-change logic model. This design was executed in three sequential but interrelated phases, inclusive of an integrative review, a gap analysis of the implementation of the programme and a frameworkdevelopment process. Primary implementers from all NEIs in the setting validated the developed framework through discussion and consensus.</p><p><strong>Results.</strong> A framework for implementing and sustaining a curricular innovation in a midwifery programme was developed. It reflects an integration of evidence obtained from research and expertise from primary implementers of the curriculum.</p><p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Designing a strategy for higher education institutions (HEIs) for implementing and sustaining curricular innovations should be based on an interplay of empirical evidence and contextual realities. HEIs should identify challenges related to curriculum implementation, and recommend tailor-made approaches that are based on evidence. Primary implementers of the curriculum are fundamental in enhancing the validity and feasibility of such a strategy within their setting.</p> C.N. Nyoni Y Botma Copyright (c) 2019-11-12 2019-11-12 11 3 96 100 Areas of good practice and areas for improvement in work-integrated learning for radiography training in South Africa <p><strong>Background.</strong> Work-integrated learning (WIL) forms an essential part of many learning programmes to equip students with the required knowledge and a complete set of skills to be successful in the world of work. However, all aspects (teaching/learning, assessment and monitoring) of WIL have to be implemented appropriately to ensure quality learning for students to construct meaning from their learning.</p><p><strong>Objective.</strong> To conduct an enquiry regarding the current practices for WIL in radiography training.</p><p><strong>Methods.</strong> Using a questionnaire, a quantitative survey was conducted among selected university lecturers, workplace learning co-ordinators and final year radiography students at 7 South African universities.</p><p><strong>Results.</strong> The results revealed the following areas of good practice: inclusion of activities to stimulate deep learning, development of soft skills, good management/ co-ordination of WIL and existing good lines of communication. Improvement measures for identified areas include: use of different learning modes, increased use of electronic teaching media, involvement of workplace supervisors in the development of outcomes and learning material, quality supervision and adequate preparation of students prior to placement.</p><p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> This study recommends the inclusion of WIL as part of the curriculum in healthcare programmes to assist students with the continuous development of new disciplinary knowledge and application of the acquired skills in the work environment.</p> J du Plessis J Bezuidenhout Copyright (c) 2019-11-12 2019-11-12 11 3 101 106