Predictors of Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV Patients attending Selected Comprehensive Care Centres in Kericho County, Kenya
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is undoubtedly the only proven remedy known to improve the health outcomes and reduce AIDS-related mortality. However, just like other chronic diseases, HIV presents significant challenges in achieving and maintaining adherence to medication. The effectiveness of HAART solely depends on adherence. For maximum medication benefits, a near-perfect adherence levels of >95% is required yet data from different studies indicate that few, if any patients have achieved perfect adherence. The main objective of the study was to the determine predictors of adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV patients attending selected comprehensive care centres in Kericho County.
Materials and Methods:
A descriptive cross-sectional study was adopted, involving 280 HIV patients (≥ 15 years) on HAART from three selected Comprehensive Care Centres in Kericho County, Kenya. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaires and key informant interviews, respectively. Purposive sampling was used to select the three health facilities while systematic sampling was used for participant selection. Adherence was measured using viral load. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 25. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between adherence to HAART and various independent variables. Results were considered to be significant at p < 0.05).
Results and conclusion:
Seventy six percent (76%) of the respondents had optimal adherence while 24% had sub-optimal adherence. More females than males were on treatment. Use of HAART alternatives was a risk factor for sub-optimal adherence (p=0.011).
Having someone/tool to remind of when to take medication and disclosure of HIV positive status to spouse were found to significantly promote adherence to HAART with p=0.034) and p=0.048, respectively.
Several studies have been done on the socio-demographic and socio-economic factors associated with adherence to HAART. Findings from this study indicate that attitudes and practices towards HAART have significant effects on adherence hence more research should be done on attitudes and practice aspects of adherence
Keywords: Adherence, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), Human Immunodeficiency Virus