Antiviral activity of Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. leaves against HIV-infected MT-4 cells
Backgrounds: Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. has been known to have anti-HIV activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of incubation time on the antiviral activity of the J. gendarussa leaves extract on HIV-infected MT-4 cells in vitro. Molecular docking test was also conducted to determine the interaction of alkaloids and flavonoids on the J. gendarussa leaves against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase receptor. It is expected that this research will provide scientific information on the development of J. gendarussa leaves as an anti-HIV drug.
Materials and Methods: In the activity test, the effect of incubation time on the antiviral activity of J. gendarussa leaves on HIV-infected MT-4 cells were evaluated. During the activity test, a parameter of cytolysis effect inhibition on MT-4 cell line was observed after 4 days and 6 days incubation period. The molecular docking test is performed by using Molegro Virtual Docker software to determine the interaction of alkaloid and flavonoid compounds of J. gendarussa leaves with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase receptor.
Results: The incubation time influences the CC50 and EC50 value. Fractionated-70% ethanol extract of J. gendarussa leaves showed a higher anti-HIV activity with EC50 = 3.045 x 10-9 μg/mL, SI = 6.309 x 1012 (4 days of incubation) and EC50 = 6.066 μg/mL, SI = 58494.845 (6 days of incubation). From molecular docking test, it was found that flavonoid of J. gendarussa leaves could inhibit the activity of HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme.
Conclusion: Fractionated-70% ethanol extract of J. gendarussa has potential as an anti-HIV.
Keywords: Justicia gendarussa, HIV, MT-4 cell, Antiviral