Callus induction of Sonchus arvensis L. And its antiplasmodial activity
Background: Malaria is a global health problem that requires urgent need for new drugs. Tempuyung (Sonchus arvensis L.) possesses many potential medicinal compounds. As the plant is originally found wild, it is important to reproduce its secondary metabolites by tissue culture. The objectives of this study were to look for effective methods to induce callus from leaf explants of Sonchus arvensis L. and to test its in vitro antiplasmodial activity.
Materials and Methods: The leaves and petioles of the plant were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) solid medium supplemented with indole acetic-3-acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and benzyl amino purine (BAP), in light and dark incubations. The best results obtained from callus induction were then treated by with several concentrations of sucrose (1- 5%). The best results from callus induction were then extracted with methanol for antiplasmodial test by Trager and Jensen’s method. It was also tested against 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum.
Results: The combination of 1mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L BAP in dark incubation was the best treatment for callus induction of tempuyung. It produced the best quality of callus and the shortest period for callusing. Sucrose treatment had various effects on leaves callusing, but had no effect on petioles callusing, whereby 4% sucrose was the best treatment for leaves callusing in dark incubation. The methanol extract of the best callus had anti-plasmodial activity with IC50=0.343 μg/mL.
Conclusion: Methanol extract of tempuyung callus shows potential as an antimalarial drug but more studies would be required.
Keyword: Antiplasmodial activity, Callus, Growth regulator, Methanol extract, Plasmodium falciparum, Sonchus arvensis, tempuyung.