African Journal of Infectious Diseases <p>The <em>African Journal of Infectious Diseases</em> (AJID), is a peer-reviewed, international journal that publishes papers which make an original contribution to the understanding of infectious diseases. Any paper relating to impact, care, prevention and social planning, will be considered for publication in AJID. Reports of research related to any aspect of the fields of microbiology, parasitology, infection, and host response, whether laboratory, clinical, or epidemiologic, will be considered for publication in the journal. AJID is index by AFrican Index Medicus, African Journals Online (AJOL), Scopus, EBSCO, MEDLINE, etc.</p> <p>All the other links can be found on our site at:&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> Obafemi Awolowo University en-US African Journal of Infectious Diseases 2006-0165 <strong>Copyright Lic</strong><strong>ense Type (Creative Commons-Attribution </strong><a href=""></a> The license lets others distribute, remix, tweak and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. This is the most accommodating of all licenses offered. Recommended for maximum dissemination and use of licensed materials. COVID-19 vaccine: The challenge of herbal medicine community belief in a developing country – Letter to the Editor <p><strong>Background</strong>: The first case of COVID-19 was officially confirmed by Indonesian government on the last March 2020, but the trend still shows no sign of decrease. In fact, traditional or herbal medicine have a big influence on people’s decisions about their health.<br><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: This report describes the community belief in herbal medicine that provides immunity to COVID-19 infection.<br><strong>Results:</strong> In the early pandemic, there were so many false and misinformation about herbal that can cure COVID-19. They use mainly herbs and spices, eucalyptus oil, arak Bali as the alternative of COVID-19 remedies. People’s interest in using herbal also shown in the market influx of these things. In a condition where demand is higher than supply, the market ran out of stocks and the prices also sharply&nbsp; increased. Continuous research that uses herbal medicine as an alternative approach to COVID-19 treatment are still ongoing.&nbsp; Nevertheless, as of now, there is no concrete scientific evidence to support the use of traditional medicine in the treatment and management of COVID-19.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These facts reflect that COVID-19 vaccine will face challenges in community. These challenges include misinformation, misleading information, cultures, and believes that potentially interfere the vaccination process. COVID-19 vaccine should get a place in peoples’ heart and mind thus can at least eliminate the pandemic.<br><br></p> Firdian Makrufardi Ade Saputri Paulin Surya Phillabertha Copyright (c) 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 15 2 1 2 Prevalence of zoonotic <I>Cryptosporidium spp.</I> Isolates In Njoro Sub-County, Nakuru County, Kenya <p><strong>Background:</strong> There is no information on human and animal Cryptosporidium spp. in Njoro sub- county. The risk posed to humans and animals within the sub-county is therefore unknown.<br><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: A total of 1476 animal and 378 human fecal samples were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate association between infection status and the predisposing factors. Results were expressed as odds ratio (OR) with a 95%&nbsp; confidence interval. Chi-square and Maentel–Haenszel tests were used to quantify relationships among variables.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 9.8% in humans, 10.8% in cows, 19.6% in sheep and 4.5% in goats. Prevalence in humans was significantly higher in females 12/37. Infection was highest in the elderly (27.27%), and significantly lower in adolescents and adults at 8.66% and 9.59%, respectively. Goats had lowest overall parasitization at all levels, while sheep had the highest parasitization at levels (+1 and +2). Relatively, humans had the highest parasite counts +3 cases (1.5%).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Cryptosporidium spp. is prevalent in Njoro sub-county and domestic animals are important reservoirs and a potential source of zoonosis in humans. Children, elderly and females are at increased risk of infection, especially during rainy season. The study&nbsp; recommends maintenance of proper sanitation when handling domestic animals, treatment of drinking water and use of alternative safer sources of water in order to reduce infection.<br><br></p> Essendi Miding'a Walter Muleke Charles Otachi Elick Miheso Manfred Kyule Domitila Copyright (c) 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 15 2 3 9 Prevalence of human parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM antibodies among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Human Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a DNA virus, transmitted through respiratory secretions, hand-to-mouth-contact, blood transfusion and trans-placental transfer. It causes high mortality and morbidity in pregnant women, thus contributing to poor maternal and child health. B19V has been neglected due to dearth of epidemiological data. The aim of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of Human Parvovirus B19 antibodies among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria.<br><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: This cross-sectional study enrolled pregnant women attending Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti from January to May 2019 to obtain sero-epidemiological data. One hundred and twenty-two (122) consenting pregnant women were enrolled following institutional ethical approval. They were administered structured questionnaire and venous blood was collected in plain tubes for serum extraction. Sera samples were analyzed for IgG and IgM antibodies using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Percentages, median, chi-square and multivariate analysis were carried out using SPSS version 17.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The prevalence of IgG was 44.3% (54/122), IgM 41.8% (51/122), and IgG/IgM 28.7% (35/122) leaving 55.7% (68/122) of the population uninfected. The median age of participants was 22 (Interquartile range 18-25) years among which 36-45years had the highest prevalence which was not statistically significant (p=0.09 4.75). There was association between miscarriage, still birth, history of blood transfusion and prevalence of Human Parvovirus B19 (p&lt;0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: There is a high Prevalence of B19V among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in this study. This underscores the need for testing and immunization of pregnant women against B19V.<br><br></p> Richard Yomi Akele Jennifer Tamuno Abelekum Bernard Oluwapelumi Oluboyo Janet Funmilayo Akinseye Seyi Samson Enitan Olusola Ayodeji Olayanju Emmanuel Jide Akele Copyright (c) 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 15 2 10 15 Knowledge and reasons for anxiety among nurses towards COVID -19 in Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Nurses in Nigeria and the whole world are facing an unprecedented severe level of anxiety in their professional and individual lives, compounded by not knowing what the future holds especially with regards to the present COVID-19 pandemic. This research is to evaluate the knowledge and reasons for anxiety toward COVID 19 among nurses in Nigeria.<br><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> An online cross-sectional quantitative survey that utilized a multistage sampling technique and data was collected with questionnaire instrument from 418 nurses using Google form for a period of eight weeks. Analysis of the result was with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20 software. Descriptive data of participants was presented in tables while the test of the inferential data was with Chi-square at 95% level of significance (p = 0.05).<br><strong>Results:</strong> The result revealed that 81.3% of the respondents are female, with a mean age of 37.81+8.21 years and mean years of experience of 13.1+8.44 years. One hundred and eighty (56.9%) of the respondents have good knowledge of COVID -19, with mean of 10.67±1.19. 88.5% were anxious because they are front line workers and having direct contact with COVID-19 patients. The relationship between identified reasons for the anxiety experienced among Nigerian nurses and level of knowledge of COVID-19 were not significant (p &gt; 0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Although nurses in Nigeria are knowledgeable about the COVID-19, they have reasons for being anxious. Addressing the reasons for their anxiety will promote their physical and psychological well-being.<br><br></p> Linda Chihurumnanya Odikpo Helen Ogechi Abazie Duke Emon Mary Oluwafunmilola Mobolaji-Olajide Dorothy Dooshima Gbahabo Aisha Musa-Malikki Copyright (c) 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 15 2 16 23 Prevalence of tuberculosis, drug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV/TB co-infection in Enugu, Nigeria <p><strong>Background</strong>: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health problem, with developing countries bearing the highest burden. Nigeria is first in Africa and sixth in the world among the countries with the highest TB burden, but is among the 10 countries accounting for over 70% of the global gap in TB case detection and notification. Enugu State, Nigeria reportedly has a notification gap of almost 14,000 TB cases; a situation which must be addressed.<br><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A total number of 868 individuals accessing DOTS services in designated centres within the six Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Enugu North geographical zone, was recruited into the study. The participants were screened for HIV seropositivity by standard protocols, while screening for TB and drug-resistant TB were conducted by a combination of Zhiel Neelsen staining and Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (Xpert® MTB/Rif).<br><strong>Results</strong>: Of the 868 subjects that participated in the study, 176 (20.3%) were HIV seropositive. The highest prevalence (26.7%) of HIV was recorded in Udenu LGA, while the least (13.1%) was recorded in Nsukka LGA. Overall TB prevalence was found to be 22.1% and 21.3% by sputum-smear and NAAT, respectively. Uzo Uwani LGA recorded the highest prevalence of both TB (33.3%) and TB/HIV co-infection (16.7%), but the lowest prevalence of resistant TB. Nsukka LGA had the highest prevalence of resistant TB.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Enugu North geographical zone, Nigeria, has a high prevalence of both HIV and TB, including resistant TB and there is need to increase monitoring of individuals resident in this region.<br><br></p> Kennethe Okonkeo Ugwu Martin Chinonye Agbo Ifeoma Maureen Ezeonu† Copyright (c) 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 15 2 24 30 100 days of COVID-19: Risk factors and confirmed cases in 19 African countries <p><strong>Background:</strong> The trail of the transmission of COVID-19 in Africa needs to be understood and conceptualized. With the limited response time to curb the transmission, the pandemic is already in 52 countries in Africa. There is much anxiety about the devastating potential of this scourge in Africa, justifiably so because of the weak health systems, high levels of poverty, and overcrowded cities. Therefore, this report examined the association between the confirmed cases at 100 days of COVID-19 and some significant risk factors in 19 African countries that had at least 100 confirmed cases as of 09 April 2020.<br><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> We evaluated four major risk factors associated with COVID-19 confirmed cases in 19 African counties with over 100 cases in 100 days after the official declaration of COVID-19 by WHO.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Three of the four risk factors (total population in urban areas, population age, and international exposure) correlated positively with the number of COVID-19 cases. In contrast, one (public health system) correlated negatively with the number of confirmed cases in the countries under study. International exposure was initially the main transmitter of the infection, but community transmission now becomes the driver of COVID-19 infections on the continent.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Identification of confirmed cases, quick contact tracing with self-isolation, community engagement, and health systems measures are all-necessary to prevent the potentially harmful ramifications of an epidemic on the continent. There is, therefore, the need for a comprehensive and integrated approach between the government and society.<br><br></p> Philemon Dauda Shallie Firoza Haffejee Copyright (c) 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 15 2 31 35 A review on emerging pathogenesis of COVID-19 and points of concern for research communities in Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> COVID-19 remains an emerging pandemic that continuously poses an alarming threat and challenge to economic, social and well-being of the people throughout the world. It also remains an evolving disease which complete pathogenesis that translates into clinical features is only just emerging by each second of the day. There have been observations about the emerging trends of the disease in Nigeria like in any other country in the world where there is outbreak. This study examined from evidence-based literature the emerging pathogenesis of COVID-19 and important points of concern of the disease in Nigeria.<br><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The paper reviewed published articles in PubMed and Google Scholar using search terms „COVID-19” and “SARS-CoV-2”, as well as searched for general COVID-19 information on internet.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The result summarized literature on emerging pathogenesis of COVID-19 and important points of concern as well as research questions as to the peculiar trends of the disease in Nigeria.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Pathogenesis of COVID-19 remains an emerging knowledge and there are many important research questions that need to be scientifically answered for a successful containment of COVID-19 in Nigeria. It is recommended that all members of intellectual research communities should join the fight against COVID-19 pandemic.<br><br></p> Mubarak Muhammad Salisu Ahmed Ibrahim Isyaku Umar Yarube Bashir Bello Copyright (c) 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 15 2 36 43 A potential zoonotic parasite: <i>Cryptosporidium parvum</i> transmission in rats, pigs and humans in west Lombok, Indonesia <p><strong>Background:</strong> <em>Cryptosporidium</em> is a neglected zoonotic disease, but with the expansion of the human community into the animal environment, its incidence is increasing. Animals such as rats and pigs can act as intermediate hosts and transmit <em>Cryptosporidium</em> to humans due to their proximity. Transmission occurs due to the ability of <em>Cryptosporidium</em> to survive in any new host. The research aimed to identify and describe the transmission of <em>Cryptosporidium</em> from animals to humans.<br><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This research was a cross sectional study and samples were collected from 84 rats caught in residential areas, 205 pigs, and 438 humans in West Lombok. Fecal samples were examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing to isolate the presence of <em>Cryptosporidium</em>, and identify the genetic similarity of the parasites found in rats and pigs with those that infect humans.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The PCR results found <em>Cryptosporidium parvum</em> in 4.76% (4/84) in rats; 6.34% 13/205) in pigs; and 0.91% (4/438) in humans. The sequencing results showed genetic kinship of <em>C. parvum</em> in rats, pigs, and humans. Based on sequence confirmation from Gene Banks and edited using ClustalW with MEGA X software, there are genetic similarities between Cryptosporidium isolates from West Lombok and <em>C. suis</em> isolates of cattle from Uganda and <em>C. suis</em> isolates of pigs from Slovakia.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: There are genetic similarities of <em>Cryptosporidium</em> in animals and humans, requiring that the Public Health programs in those contaminated areas must receive priority attention to prevent further transmission of these potentially fatal parasites.<br><br></p> Ersandhi Resnhaleksmana Mahardika Agus Wijayanti Wayan Tunas Artama Copyright (c) 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 15 2 44 51 Comparing socio-economic conditions of mother and children with leprosy in endemic and non-endemic areas in East Java, Indonesia <p><strong>Background:</strong> Leprosy is a disease that causes social, psychological, and economic issues. Failure to treat the causes of the immune system dysregulation in endemic areas of leprosy conditions makes the transmission of the bacteria easier. This paper aims to analyze the comparison of family income, occupation types of mothers and fathers, number of children, access to health facilities, and education of mothers, fathers, and children in mothers and children with leprosy in endemic and non-endemic areas.<br><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: A cross sectional study by survey was done in both an endemic and a non-endemic area of leprosy in Tuban Regency, East Java, Indonesia. Retrieval of research data was done using interview techniques. Respondents who participated in this study were 106 pairs of mother and child respondents who met the research restriction criteria. Subjects were divided into 5groups based on diagnosis of leprosy and area of living. Bivariate analysis was performed by comparing the independent variables in each group A, B, C, and D with group E.<br><strong>Results</strong>:It was found that the variables that differed significantly between the endemic and non-endemic areas were the variable number of children with a p-value=0.004, family income with a p-value=0.049 and the variable mother’s education with a p-value=0.016. Meanwhile, other variables do not have significant difference.<br><strong>Conclusions</strong>: We found significant difference on the number of children, father’s education, mother's education, and family income. These variables can be a risk factor for leprosy. To make efforts to prevent the transmission of leprosy, stakeholders should consider these factors.<br><br></p> Flora Ramona Sigit Prakoeswa Ghina Shabrina Awanis Aini Azizah Budi Prasetyo Santi Martini Hardyanto Soebono Dominicus Husada Hari Basuki Notobroto Muhammad Yulianto Listiawan Anang Endaryanto Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa Copyright (c) 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 15 2 52 58