African Journal of Infectious Diseases <p>The <em>African Journal of Infectious Diseases</em> (AJID), is a peer-reviewed, international journal that publishes papers which make an original contribution to the understanding of infectious diseases. Any paper relating to impact, care, prevention and social planning, will be considered for publication in AJID. Reports of research related to any aspect of the fields of microbiology, parasitology, infection, and host response, whether laboratory, clinical, or epidemiologic, will be considered for publication in the journal. AJID is index by AFrican Index Medicus, African Journals Online (AJOL), Scopus, EBSCO, MEDLINE, etc.</p> <p>All the other links can be found on our site at:&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> Obafemi Awolowo University en-US African Journal of Infectious Diseases 2006-0165 <strong>Copyright Lic</strong><strong>ense Type (Creative Commons-Attribution </strong><a href=""></a> The license lets others distribute, remix, tweak and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. This is the most accommodating of all licenses offered. Recommended for maximum dissemination and use of licensed materials. Etiologies of infections in diabetic patients hospitalized at Bouake University Teaching Hospital, Côte d’Ivoire <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diabetic infections are frequent and the etiologies are multiple. The present study aims to identify the etiologies of the infections of the diabetic patient hospitalized in the University Teaching Hospital of Bouake in Côte d’Ivoire.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted in the Internal Medicine Department from January 2019 to December 2020. The study population consisted of hospitalized and infected diabetic patients. Of this study population we included in the study 136 patients. Data analysis was done with Epi Info software.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The prevalence of infection in hospitalized diabetics was 75.1%. The mean age of the patients was 52 ± 13.4 years. The sex ratio was 0.7. Diabetes was incidentally discovered in 50% and type 2 diabetes (88.2%) predominated. The reasons for hospitalization were dominated by ketoacidosis (58.1%), glycemic imbalance (19.1%) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemia syndrome (10.3%). Fever was present in 41.2% of cases. The infectious foci were urinary tract infections (29.4%), pneumopathies (28.7%), malaria (21.3%), skin infections (13.2%) and the undetermined focus (7.3%). The infectious focus was unique in 90.4%. The germs identified were plasmodium (21.3%), <em>Escherichia coli </em>(8.8%), staphylococcus (8.3%), yeasts (8.3%) and Enterobacter (6.7%). Beta-lactams (75.6%) were the most prescribed anti-infective treatment. Mortality was 14.7% related to type 1 diabetes (p=0.001), duration of diabetes greater than 5 years (p=0.005), hospitalization latency greater than 7 days (p=0.001), mucocutaneous focus (p=0.005) and Undetermined foci (p=0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Diabetic infections are frequent and the etiologies are varied. They must be systematically sought in hospitalized diabetics.</p> Djakaridja Kone Famoussa Kone Martine Tatiana Yapo Juliette Kadiane-Oussou Salifou Kone Jean-Marie Karidioula Gille Renaud Kouame Ouffoué Kra Bourheima Ouattara Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-19 2023-09-19 17 2 1 5 Backsliding on childhood immunizations due to ongoing COVID-19 pandemic: A retrospective study in Banadir Region, Somalia <p><strong>Background: </strong>SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in a global public health crisis. During the pandemic, considerable delay was observed making it impossible for some children to receive their due vaccines on time. Like most resource-poor countries, COVID-19 pandemic is thought to have a negative impact on Somalia’s immunization coverage.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>This study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on routine childhood immunization coverage in Somalia. A retrospective comparative cross-sectional approach was employed to investigate the number of under-5-year children who got their immunization from the two major mother and child hospital, (Banadir and SOS hospitals) in Mogadishu, Somalia from October 2019 to December 2020. To do this, a total of 112, 060 data relating to the routine childhood immunization (measles, polio, whooping cough, hepatitis B, pneumonia, and tuberculosis) were collected from the monthly immunization report-data from the two hospitals.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results showed that all the vaccines except birth vaccines have remarkably dropped with Penta-3 (27%), Penta-2 (11%), measles (10%) and Penta-1 (8%) respectively. However, the birth vaccines (BCG and Polio 0) were not affected as observed in this study. The reduction in children immunization rate in Somalia may be a combination of many other factors, we however recognize that the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed significantly to this outcome.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The government needed to take proactive measures to encourage parents to present their children for immunizations, including increasing community awareness concerning the importance of these routine childhood immunizations despite the ongoing COVID-19 pandemics.</p> Fartun Abdullahi H Orey Kadra Hassan Sheik Mohamud Iftin Abdi Nor Abdulle Jamal Hassan Mohamoud Bashiru Garba Mohamed Hussein Adam Hassan Abdullahi Dahie Maryan Abdullahi Sh. Nur Najib Isse Dirie Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-19 2023-09-19 17 2 6 12 <i>GyrB</i> – polymerase chain reaction and histopathologic characteristic figure potential for determining diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis <p><strong>Background</strong>: TB lymphadenitis is still a problem that needs serious treatment. In Indonesia, it was reported that 53% of TB cases were extrapulmonary tuberculosis, with the most cases being Lymphadenitis TB, 11.6%. In children, 43% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases are TB lymphadenitis. Diagnosis is quite difficult; a method of determining the diagnosis and appropriate comprehensive treatment is required in managing TB Lymphadenitis.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: In this study, 15 fine needle aspiration biopsy aspirate samples were subjected to molecular examination using the gyrB–polymerase chain reaction method and histopathological observations using the smear method with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Observation of preparations using a microscope with a magnification of 200x.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The histopathological characteristics of the fine needle aspiration biopsy aspirate showed positive results in 4 out of 15 samples, with epithelioid cells arranged in a characteristic granuloma structure, necrotic debris was visible, and cells joined together to form multinucleated giant cells as an inflammatory response to <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis </em>complex infection. In this study, 6 out of 15 (40%) were detected to be positive in the diagnosis based on molecular detection using a specific target gene gyrB - polymerase chain reaction.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Characteristic features on histopathological examination associated with gyrB - positive polymerase chain reaction on lymphadenitis <em>fine needle aspiration biopsy </em>aspirate samples can be used as a determinant diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis.</p> Wahyu Herlambang Ni Made Mertaniasih Soedarsono Soedarsono Willy Sandhika Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-19 2023-09-19 17 2 13 18 Overview of COVID-19 cases in pregnancy at the hospital universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia, when the pandemic storm hit in the 2020-2022 period. <p><strong>Background: </strong>COVID-19 (Coronavirus 2019) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2), an acute infectious disease primarily affecting the respiratory system. Data on COVID-19 exposure during pregnancy and issues associated with COVID-19 during pregnancy remain limited. This research aimed to determine the number of pregnant women infected by COVID-19, laboratory test findings of pregnant women related to COVID-19 infection, infant outcome from mother with or without COVID-19 infection and referential status for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pregnant women at the USU Hospital during the 2020–2022 period.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>This research was conducted using a descriptive method with a cross-sectional study approach using a nonprobability sampling technique by collecting secondary data from COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pregnant women at the USU Hospital during the 2020-2022 period, where 112 samples were obtained.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The majority of COVID-19 pregnant women and non-COVID-19 pregnant women have been identified sequentially based on Hb (11.6%-decreased vs 79.5%-normal); Ht (11.6%-decreased vs 76.8%-increased); leukocytes (11.6%-increased vs 83%-normal); thrombocytes (8.9%-normal vs 86.6%-normal); PT (9.8%-normal vs 50.9%-normal); APTT (11.6%-normal vs 87.5%-normal); D-dimer (11.6%-long vs 56.3%-long); procalcitonin (7.1%-increased vs 87.5%-normal); NLR (8%-increased vs 82.1%-normal); CRP (12.5%- increased vs 87.5%-normal) and all of the baby outcomes were non-COVID-19 and the majority of pregnant women were not referred.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Based on the data in this study, the majority of pregnant women and babies at the USU Hospital during the 2020–2022 period were non-COVID-19 positive and with non-referral status. Laboratory findings of COVID-19 in pregnancy significantly reveals abnormalities.</p> Muhammad Ernesto Azguevara Ganis Siregar Henry Salim Siregar Muara Panusunan Lubis Ichwanul Adenin Irwin Lamtota Lumbanraja Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-19 2023-09-19 17 2 19 24 COVID-19: The need for increased recognition of cutaneous manifestations – Letter to the editor <p>No abstract.</p> A Odekunle O Kafi A Olaiya O Olatunji Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-19 2023-09-19 17 2 25 26