African Journal of Infectious Diseases <p>The <em>African Journal of Infectious Diseases</em> (AJID), is a peer-reviewed, international journal that publishes papers which make an original contribution to the understanding of infectious diseases. Any paper relating to impact, care, prevention and social planning, will be considered for publication in AJID. Reports of research related to any aspect of the fields of microbiology, parasitology, infection, and host response, whether laboratory, clinical, or epidemiologic, will be considered for publication in the journal. AJID is index by AFrican Index Medicus, African Journals Online (AJOL), Scopus, EBSCO, MEDLINE, etc.</p> <p>All the other links can be found on our site at:&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> en-US <strong>Copyright Lic</strong><strong>ense Type (Creative Commons-Attribution </strong><a href=""></a> The license lets others distribute, remix, tweak and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. This is the most accommodating of all licenses offered. Recommended for maximum dissemination and use of licensed materials. (Prof. Cyprian O. Onyenji) (Prof. John Akanni O. Ojewole) Thu, 29 Feb 2024 08:22:28 +0000 OJS 60 Impact of COVID-19 on people living with HIV in Madagascar: A SARS-CoV2 seroprevalence survey <p><strong>Background: </strong>In Madagascar, no study has reported the impact of COVID-19 on people living with HIV (PLHIV). The present work aimed to analyze the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Malagasy PLHIV before and during the three waves of COVID-19 pandemic. This is a retrospective study.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>We conducted a retrospective serological survey in PLHIV followed up for HIV viral load (VL) monitoring at the Centre d’Infectiologie Charles Mérieux Madagascar (CICM) between June 2019 and April 2022. The presence of IgM and/or IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein was detected using a rapid diagnostic test (COVID-PRESTO®).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A seroprevalence of 2.5% was found in the 877 patients tested before March 2020, compared to 25.4% (512/2,011) between March 2020 and April 2022. This seroprevalence was 21.7%, 22.3% and 60.1% after the first, second and third waves of COVID-19, respectively. We observed a marginally significant difference (p = 0.043) in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence between patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (27.5%) and those who were not (23.7%). No statistically significant difference was observed between PLHIV with undetectable HIV VL (27.4%) and the different detectable VL categories (p&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Our data show the presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 among PLHIV as early as December 2019 in Madagascar. At least 25.4% (512/2,011) of Malagasy PLHIV have been in contact with SARS-CoV-2 since March 2020. There is no significant relation between HIV-1 VL and SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence. Additional studies with more robust assays in the general population are needed for a detailed knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 impact in Madagascar.</p> Fetra Angelot Rakotomalala, Santatriniaina Dauphin Randriarimanana, Hajanirina Nathanaella Randriamananjara, François Xavier Babin, Haja Randriantsara, Tahinamandranto Rasamoelina, Danielle Aurore Doll Rakoto, Luc Hervé Samison, Ahidjo Ayouba, Eric Nerrienet Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the knowledge of smallpox and Monkeypox virus among the University of Tlemcen members in the wake of COVID-19: A 2023 cross-sectional study. <p><strong>Background: </strong>A recently-surfaced virus called Monkeypox virus (MPXV) has gained widespread attention as it dominates the news, creating a sense of panic among people due to the potential threat it poses to their health.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>To evaluate knowledge about this virus and its disease, and to raise consciousness among the members of the Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences and Earth and Universe Sciences at the University of Tlemcen, we launched an online web-based survey for a twenty days ’period that contained sociodemographic and perceptiveness questions about the emergent virus, its disease, and vaccination.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Our findings showed that the majority of the respondents of our study have a satisfactory level of knowledge about this emerging virus and its disease. Moreover, most participants showed a positive attitude towards the vaccine, considering it the best preventive means to fight against Monkeypox disease.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Although the MPXV may not become a pandemic, but knowing the various ways that contribute to its spread is essential to avoid any possibility of a new one, especially in Algeria.</p> Ilyes Zatla, Wafa Abid, Lamia Boublenza Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Biomolecular activity of cryptococcus during cryptococcosis: A review of molecular interactions of cryptococcus with human immune system and blood-brain-barrier <p>Global mycosis is still a problem. One of these is the cryptococcal disease. A systemic mycosis brought on by Cryptococcus is called cryptococcosis. Host immunological conditions influence infection with Cryptococcosis. When environmental spores are inhaled by the host, the spores get to the lungs, an infection is created. Alveolar macrophages and other immune cells recognize <em>Cryptococcus </em>in the lung. The initial line of defense against pathogens in the phagolysosome is provided by alveolar macrophages found in the lungs. When the immune system is weak, Cryptococcus uses the evasion system as a molecular interaction with the immune system and persists in the lungs without causing any symptoms such as Factor Transcription, Cell masking, N-glycan structure, Extracellular molecule, and Antioxidant system. The evasion mechanism protects and makes Cryptococcus disseminate throughout the other organs, especially CNS. If Cryptococcus escapes against the host immune system, it will disseminate to other organs, especially Cerebrospinal System by Three mechanisms. There are Trojan Horse, Paracellular, and Transcellular interactions with Blood-Brain Barrier. Disease severity is determined by the Interaction between the host’s immune system and the fungus.</p> Julian Julian, Robiatul Adawiyah, Sri Wahdini Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Austrian syndrome: A rare case report <p>Austrian syndrome is a rare and fatal triad of pneumonia, meningitis and endocarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, with a mortality rate of 60%. We report a case of Austrian syndrome in a 59-year-old patient, with a history of arterial hypertension on angiotensin 2 receptor antagonist therapy for five years, chronic smoking at 20 packs per year and occasional enolism for fifteen years, presenting with prolonged fever associated with loss of consciousness with no respiratory or cardiac signs, in whom purulent bacterial meningitis with positive Gram stain, infective endocarditis with mitral and aortic localization and interstitial pneumopathy have been demonstrated with negative blood cultures. Although the mortality rate is very high, early management of Austrian syndrome can improve the patient's quality of life.</p> Kamena Mwana-Yile Hassan, Samia Ejjebli, Hanane Badi, Jean Claude Bucumi, Kamal El Filali Marhoum Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 An essential tool to be optimized: Syndromic management of vaginal discharge in Haiti <p><strong>Background: </strong>Haiti, like many low-income countries in crisis, has limited resources for etiologic diagnosis of vaginal discharge. As such, we sought to characterize variability in diagnoses of women presenting with vaginal discharge syndrome, with the goal to improve standardization of syndromic management.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Participants aged 18 years and older endorsing vaginitis, or dysuria were recruited at Jerusalem Clinic over two, one-week periods in April 2018 and July 2019. We calculated Spearman rank correlations among history, exam findings, and diagnoses based on clinical presentation, to understand presentation groupings and their management.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among 98 women, median age was 33.5 years, and most frequent symptoms were: vaginal discharge (97%), vaginal itch (73%), and/or suprapubic pain (68%). Most common physical exam findings were vaginal discharge (86%), suprapubic/lower quadrant tenderness (29%), cervical motion tenderness (24%), and cervical erythema (20%). Most symptoms and physical exam findings were weakly correlated with each other. Nearly one-third (31%) were diagnosed with normal physiologic vaginal discharge or no diagnosis, followed by Bacterial vaginosis (31%), vulvovaginal candidiasis (15%), cervicitis/PID (13%), and STI (7%). No reported symptoms strongly differentiated diagnostic categories. Diagnoses varied considerably by exam findings.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The weak correlations between symptoms, exam findings, and diagnoses could represent variability in assessment. In the absence of reliable and accessible laboratory testing, the importance of standardizing syndromic management becomes increasingly relevant. Results from our study support the utility of speculum examination and more standardized documentation of physical exam findings. Next steps include the development of local algorithms to promote standardization of treatment of vaginal discharge syndrome.</p> Morgan Sturgis, Victoria Buckman, Samiya Diawara, St. Paul F. Fiquita, Marlene M. Adrien, Xixi Zhao, Supriya Mehta, Jennifer Towbin, Stephanie Crane Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000