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Hooking mortality of scalloped hammerhead <i>Sphyrna lewini</i> and great hammerhead <i>Sphyrna mokarran</i> sharks caught on bottom longlines

S.J.B. Gulak
A.J. de Ron Santiago
J.K. Carlson


The scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini and the great hammerhead S. mokarran are typically caught as bycatch in a variety of fisheries and are listed as globally Endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Due to very high at-vessel mortality for these species, research is needed on fishing methods to reduce mortality for longline-captured sharks. A series of fishing experiments were conducted employing hook timers and temperature–depth recorders on contracted commercial vessels fishing with bottom-longline gear to assess factors related to mortality. A total of 273 sets were deployed with 54 485 hook timers. Scalloped and great hammerheads had at-vessel mortality rates of 62.9% and 56.0%, respectively. Median hooking times for scalloped and great hammerheads were 3.5 h and 3.4 h, respectively, and 50% mortality was predicted at 3.5 h and 3.8 h. When these data are considered for potential management strategies to reduce the mortality of hammerhead sharks, a limitation on gear soak time would probably improve hammerhead shark survivorship. However, it may prove to be difficult for a fishery to remain economically viable if the soak time is limited to less than the median hooking time for the target species. Additional management options, such as time/area closures, may need to be explored to reduce bycatch mortality of scalloped and great hammerheads.

Keywords: bycatch, hook timer, logistic regression, soak time, time on the hook