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Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation

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What Clinical and Laboratory Parameters Distinguish Between Acute and Chronic Renal Failure?

A Sanusi, F Arogundade, T Ekwere, A Akinsola

Abstract


Introduction: In developing countries, a large number of patients presenting acutely in renal failure are indeed cases of advanced chronic renal failure. In this study, we compared clinical and laboratory parameters between patients with acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic renal failure (CRF), to identify discriminatory features. Patients and methods: The Renal Unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex is a major referral center for renal disease in Nigeria. 20 patients with ARF and 22 patients with CRF (who had not had dialysis intervention) were recruited for the study at presentation. They had full evaluation including demography, history of duration of symptoms, blood pressure, volume of urine, and laboratory parameters: serum creatinine, urea, potassium, and packed cell volume (PCV). These parameters were compared using Mann Whitney U test for nonparametric data to determine statistical significance. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding their (i) ages (ii) serum creatinine and (iii) PCV. In contrast, statistically significant differences were obtained for (i) the mean duration of symptoms, which was longer in CRF patients, (ii) the mean 24 hour urine volume, which was larger in CRF patients, (iii) the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures, both being significantly higher in CRF patients, (iv) and the mean serum urea level, which was higher in ARF patients. Conclusion: It is concluded that the duration of symptoms, quantity of urine, blood pressure, and serum urea levels are distinguishing parameters between ARF and CRF, while serum creatinine and PCV are not.

Key words: Acute Renal Failure, Chronic Renal Failure, Laboratory Parameters



http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajnt.v1i1.58820
AJOL African Journals Online