Leisure and health in cross-cultural settings: Evidences from China, Korea and Japan
In view of the limited previous research on impact of leisure lifestyle on people‘s health in cross-cultural settings, this paper addresses this issue by analyzing the results of three studies conducted in China, Korea, and Japan. The three cross-cultural leisure and health studies operationalize leisure lifestyle as leisure activities, leisure constraints, leisure satisfaction, and health. The three studies also provide expansions of Social Gradient Theory of Life Expectancy (SGTLE), Fundamental Social Cause Theory (FSCT), and Cultural Consonance Theory (CCT) which suggest that leisure activities and leisure constraints have impacts on health cross-culturally. All three studies found that leisure constraints in leisure lifestyle impact well-being, happiness, and stress. Although both the SGTLE and FSCT indicated that socioeconomic status (SES) is related to health, the Japan study did not support both theories. In Okinawa, SES has no impact on health. The findings in Japan study suggest a major revision of SGTLE and FSCT that health is not related to SES. All three studies contribute to our understanding of the relationship between leisure lifestyle and health cross-culturally.
Keywords: Leisure lifestyle, health, China, Korea, Japan.