Bull’s Mental Skills Questionnaire validation in an Afrikaans speaking population

  • A Kruger
  • DJ Edwards
  • SD Edwards
Keywords: Bull’s Questionnaire, validation, Afrikaans population


The purpose of this research was to validate the Bull’s Mental Skills Questionnaire in an Afrikaans speaking population. An Afrikaans version of the scale was developed through a rigorous translation and back translation procedure. The scale was administered to a convenience sample of 674 first to third year, Human Movement Science students (337 males and 324 females), with a mean age of 19.58±1.62. Exploratory Principle Component Factor Analysis, using Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normalization, yielded a satisfactory six factor solution, virtually identical to six of the seven factors of the English version. Cronbach alpha reliability indices for the respective subscales were as follows: Concentration ability (.83), Anxiety and worry management (.81), Relaxation ability (.74), Imagery ability (.61), Motivation (.75) and Mental preparation (.57). It is recommended that this shortened six subscale version be used in mental skills research and praxis in Afrikaans speaking populations.

Keywords: Bull’s Questionnaire, validation, Afrikaans population


Journal Identifiers

print ISSN: 2411-6939