African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences

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Do pregnant women know how to correct inverted nipples?

C Borstlap, W.D. du Bruyn, R Leech, M Yazbek


Inverted nipples occur in an estimated 9 to 10 percent of women globally, contributing to the number of women who are not exclusively breastfeeding their infants. Women with inverted nipples may want to breastfeed, but infants may be unable to latch to the breast. Inverted nipples can be corrected, but it is unclear if women know about suitable interventions. This study assessed if pregnant women knew about the available techniques to correct inverted nipples. We conducted individual interviews with nine pregnant women with inverted nipples in a tertiary hospital in South Africa. Data were analysed using an inductive content analysis. Most of the women had very limited knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding or inverted nipples and knew very little about correcting devices. These women thought that their infants would be unable to latch and that exclusive breastfeeding would be impossible. Pregnant women with inverted nipples should be educated about methods to correct their nipples.

Keywords: Inverted nipples, correction of inverted nipples, breastfeeding challenges

AJOL African Journals Online