African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences

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Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health perceptions: Sport psychology implications

SD Edwards


The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality perceptions, but not health perceptions. There were some indications that breath ratios of about five to seven breaths per minute were generally associated with improved spirituality perceptions. This association was stronger for spirituality perceptions than health perceptions, but in both cases, relationships appeared too complex to be reduced quantitatively, indicating the need for, and value of, more integrated, holistic and dynamic approaches in health, wellness, and sport and exercise psychology.

Keywords: Breath ratios, spirituality, health, perceptions, sport and exercise psychology.

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