Homocysteine levels in individuals with and without metabolic syndrome in a rural black community of Ga-Mothapo in the Limpopo Province, South Africa
Metabolic syndrome (MS) represents a major public health problem that should be identified in individuals. By prediction, about 300 million people will have developed MS by 2030. The purpose of the study was to determine the levels of homocysteine (Hcy) in individuals and compare these levels in MS and non-MS individuals and, to determine the relationship between MS and Hcy. The study was cross-sectional, prospective and quantitative. The sample consisted of 382 individuals aged 18-65 years. Fasting blood samples were analysed for glucose, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol using ILab 300 Plus Chemistry System Analyser. Homocysteine was determined using the Beckman Coulter SYNCHRON System Analyser. Blood pressure was measured using the Omron MI-5 device. Diagnosis of MS was done according to National Cholesterol Education Programme criteria. The mean ages (years) of participants were 52.50 ± 11.067 and 35.76 ± 14.886 for MS and non-MS, respectively (p = 0.000). Homocysteine levels were 10.68 ± 3.433 μmol/L and 9.23 ± 2.924 μmol/L for MS and non-MS, respectively (p = 0.000). Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with Hcy (r=0.132, p = 0.010). In bivariate regression, age, systolic and diastolic blood pressures and triglycerides increased the likelihood of hyperhomocysteinaemia by 1.07 times (p = 0.000), 1.03 times (p = 0.000), 1.05 times (p = 0.004) and 7.15 times (p = 0.020), respectively. In multivariate modelling age was a significant predictor of hyperhomocystenaemia. The study indicated significantly high levels of Hcy in MS than in non-MS (p = 0.010) and significant association of Hcy with MS.
Keywords: Homocysteinaemia, metabolic syndrome, hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, HDL-C, hypertension.
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