African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences

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Research report on South African university mental skills norms for six sports

A Kruger, DJ Edwards, SD Edwards


The Bull’s Mental Skills Questionnaire, developed in the United Kingdom, is being more extensively used across various South African sport and exercise settings. It comprises seven mental skill subscales: imagery, mental preparation (goal-setting), self-confidence, anxiety and worry management, concentration, relaxation and motivation. Individual subscale scores are calculated and combined into a total score. Previous research has recommended establishment of local sport code norms. The aim of this study was to establish preliminary South African university norms for rugby, cricket, soccer, athletics, hockey and netball. The sample consisted of 121 university students from a South African institution. Norms are presented in means and standard deviations. Sports code norms are compared. Norms are compared with previous studies using similar samples. Recommendations for future research with the scale are made.

Keywords: Bull’s Mental Skills Questionnaire, South Africa, university students, sport code norms, six sports.

AJOL African Journals Online