African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences 2021-03-17T08:16:37+00:00 Prof. Abel L. Toriola Open Journal Systems <p>AJPHES publishes research papers that contribute to knowledge and practice, and also develops&nbsp;theory either as new information, reviews, confirmation of previous findings, application of new&nbsp;teaching/coaching techniques and research notes. Letters to the editor relating to the materials&nbsp;previously published in AJPHES could be submitted within 3 months after publication of the&nbsp;article in question. Such letter will be referred to the corresponding author and both the letter and&nbsp;response will be published concurrently in a subsequent issue of the journal.</p> <p>Manuscripts are considered for publication in AJPHES based on the understanding that they have&nbsp;not been published or submitted for publication in any other journal. In submitting papers for&nbsp;publication, corresponding authors should make such declarations. Where part of a paper has&nbsp;been published or presented at congresses, seminars or symposia, reference to that publication&nbsp;should be made in the acknowledgement section of the manuscript.</p> <p>AJPHES is published quarterly, i.e. in March, June, September and December.<br>Supplements/Special editions are also published periodically.</p> Global perspectives and quality physical education (QPE): Stagnation or new paradigms? 2021-03-16T15:00:59+00:00 Anneliese E. Goslin <p>Despite high-level advocacy for physical education (PE) at global forums and through international consensus on the value of PE in education systems, there are indications of significant gaps between policy and practice. Worldwide surveys on PE in schools, national situation analyses and scholarly articles generated enough evidence to suggest considerable concern about the state and status of PE on a global scale. This paper presents perspectives on the global status of PE to conclude whether the delivery of PE is stagnating or adapting new paradigms to capitalise on the claimed cross-cutting benefits of the subject in schools. Although some countries showed positive developments, stagnation is apparent in global PE delivery. Current ways of thinking about PE do not yield the desired outcomes set in the standards of QPE. The proverbial clock for QPE in schools is positioned on one minute before midnight. There is no more time for global surveys, conferences, and meetings. Because the world is quite intimately connected through technology and is poised on the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), new paradigms for PE in schools must be developed and implemented to create environments aligning with the new reality, or we can start writing PE’s obituary globally.</p> 2021-03-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Footprints of ICSSPE in global quality physical education (QPE) 2021-03-17T06:36:58+00:00 Darlene A. Kluka <p>The global quest for Quality Physical Education (QPE) remains largely under-achieved despite initiatives of international organisations like United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) as well as the International Council for Sport Science and Physical Education (ICSSPE). This qualitative content analysis of primary and secondary literature on QPE aims to provide an overview involving the role of ICSSPE as an internationally recognised organisation. Founded in 1958, its goals involve inclusive perspectives from different disciplines in sport, physical education and sport science. ICSSPE’s significant footprints on QPE are in advocacy, research, policy making and education. Since its inception, ICSSPE has sought to be an international leader in physical education and sport science in collaborative initiatives representing diverse organisational members. From a thorough perusal of the literature that has been presented, ICSSPE has made substantive footprints in policy making through its leadership and participation in formal declarations, agendas, and plans, specifically through UNESCO, IOC (International Olympic Committee), and WHO. They have also made footprints at scientific conferences in collaboration with IOC and others by hosting pre-Olympic scientific conferences, keynote speakers, and notable scientific publications involving physical education and sport, such as the Directory of Sport Science in its 6th edition, the Bulletin with 73 issues, and the Perspectives Series, 14 volumes from 1999 to present, published by Routledge. It is recommended that ICSSPE continues to discover innovative strategies that are region-specific to determine solutions that are context-specific to delivery and practice of QPE based upon core principles that have been devised by international organisations.</p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Paradigm lost: What constitutes physical education in South African public schools? 2021-03-17T06:42:30+00:00 C. Burnett <p>Global agencies are advocating for Quality Physical Education (QPE) and policy reform to guide meaningful and impactful practices. A national study was undertaken by 25 researchers from seven South African public universities to investigate the state and status of physical education (PE) in South African public schools. This paper draws on this nation-wide research by evaluating and critically reflecting on the implementing practices and approaches regarding PE. The paper draws on a comprehensive pool of qualitative data collected through interviews with decision-makers (66 principals or their representatives) and focus group discussions with 232 heads of department (HoDs)/teachers and 601 primary and secondary school learners. They representative of a purposeful sample of different school types, namely urban and rural, various socio-economic profiles as per quintile ranking and schools for learners with special educational needs (LSEN). Five main approaches emerged: (i) a practice with correlating dimensions of QPE; (ii) a sportfocused approach; (iii) a health-focused approach; (iv) a value-education and life skill approach; and (v) self-learning or non-teaching. Outsourcing of PE was a common practice with nongovernmental agencies as ‘life coaches’ for lower quintile schools and specialist coaches for higher quintile schools. The level of access to multiple resources tallied with the quality of experiences, whilst the level of education and motivation of teachers, being the most significant resource, were related to different implementation approaches and educational effects.</p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Level playing fields? Addressing Physical Education delivery in three KwaZulu-Natal school contexts, South Africa 2021-03-17T06:58:50+00:00 Janet Jarvis <p>This article focuses on the state and status of Physical Education (PE) in six KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) schools in three different school contexts: former Model-C, rural and township. This comparative case study employed a qualitative, descriptive research design with an interpretative approach. The findings, conclusions and recommendations inform a nation-wide research project under the aupices of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) - Department of Basic Education (DBE) partnership. Adopting a social justice theoretical framework, analysis of the KZN data demonstrates the imperative to adopt a holistic, inclusive approach in the promotion of PE across school contexts. The playing fields, both physically and figuratively are not level between quintiles 2, 3 and 5 schools. The infrastructure, particularly, in the lower quintile schools, needs attention. Teachers are key resources needed to bring about change and both pre-service and in-service Life Orientation teachers require training and support to facilitate PE. It is hoped that national and provincial stakeholders will respond to the empirical data presented in this study so that PE can, with integrity, afford learners the opportunity to learn-to-move and to learn-through-movement in all school contexts. There are many tertiary institutions in South Africa, including KZN, that are well-positioned to deliver pre-service training, accredited coursework and information resources to schools in the country.</p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Opportunities for all? The impact of resources on the implementation of Physical Education in Free State schools 2021-03-17T07:03:26+00:00 L.C.E. Stroebel <p>This study emanates from a national research project which was a joint initiative between the South African Department of Basic Education (DBE), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the South African University Physical Education Association (SAUPEA). It undertook a situational analysis of Physical Education (PE) within the existing Life Orientation (LO) curriculum. The decline of physical activity among South African school children prompted these stakeholders to determine the possible factors that could play a role in the deteriorating health of the youth. The aim of the study was to identify the barriers against effective implementation of PE in schools in the Free State Province of South Africa. A qualitative research design was undertaken which included focus groups and interviews. Data were collected from a purposive sample of 7 principals, 22 LO teachers, 2 sports coordinators and one occupational therapist at seven public primary and secondary schools in the province. The schools represented different geographical settings and types (i.e. quintiles 1-5), which included a school for learners with special needs. The results indicated that inequalities exist amongst schools in different quintiles, with township and rural schools mostly affected by insufficient resources. Numerous deficits as well as challenges related to facilities, funding, training and human resources persist in the schools. Evidently, the discrepancies between schools with different quintile settings have an impact on the effective implementation of the PE curriculum, as well as on the need to provide equal opportunities for all children, regardless of the type of school they attend.</p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Physical Education in Gauteng schools, South Africa: A case study 2021-03-17T07:10:39+00:00 Anneliese E. Goslin <p>The global survival and revitalization of physical education (PE) in schools have been the priority of experts and lobbyists for decades. On the African continent, especially, efforts to reawaken PE escalated in the recent past. A qualitative, exploratory study with comparative case study analysis was used in a purposive sample. Gauteng public schools were used as units of analysis across geographic area (rural, township, urban) and socio-economic categorisation (Quintiles 1 to 5). The study was based on the research methodology described in the national analysis of the state and status of Physical Education in South African public schools (Burnett, 2018) replicated in all nine provinces of the country. Results were analysed according to the policy framework and curriculum documents used, positioning of PE in schools, methods of delivery, resources and perceptions of teachers, learners and parents. A significant conclusion which emerged from this study is the stark contrast in the status and perceptions of PE between primary and secondary schools. An alarming finding is the sportification and conceptual confusion of PE. It is recommended that the Department of Basic Education (DBE) revises the PE curriculum in the CAPS policy document, especially in secondary schools and in schools for learners with special needs. Generalist teachers should also be orientated to the unique aspects of teaching PE. Assessment practices must be monitored and evaluated.</p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effects of an in-service training and support programme on teachers’ perceptions of physical education and their teaching effectiveness 2021-03-17T07:25:42+00:00 S.J. van der Westhuizen D. du Toit N. van der Merwe <p>Although the health benefits of Physical Education (PE) are well-recognised, the subject faces several implementation challenges in South Africa, of which the lack of qualified PE teachers is one. Within the framework of the Self-determination Theory (SDT), in-service training can enhance PE teachers’ motivation and perceptions of PE, if the basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness are addressed. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an in-service training and support programme, based on the principles of the SDT, on teachers’ perceptions of PE and their teaching effectiveness. Based on qualitative methodology, eight purposively-chosen participants in a five-day PE teacher training course, followed by a fourmonth support programme, were individually interviewed. The findings showed that the participants felt that their knowledge and understanding of PE had been enhanced and that they were more efficient in applying different organisational, assessment and teaching strategies in the PE class, even in the face of challenges like large classes, limited time and a lack of equipment. The activity ideas and the support provided by co-participants and instructors, were highlighted as positive influences. It was concluded that PE in-service training and support programmes which address the basic psychological needs of the participants within the SDT framework, can have a positive effect on teachers’ perceptions of PE and on their teaching effectiveness, thereby contributing to the enhancement of PE in South Africa.</p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Perceptions of different role-players regarding the implementation of Physical Education in schools in the North West Province, South Africa 2021-03-17T07:33:10+00:00 D. du Toit N. van der Merwe <p>Although literature supports the importance of quality Physical Education (PE) for different aspects of learners’ development, various implementation challenges facing the subject in South Africa, have been reported. In the light of limited research regarding these challenges in the North- West Province, the aim of this study was to investigate different role-players’ perceptions of PE in selected schools in the province. Guided by the principles of self-determination theory and using purposive and convenience sampling, qualitative data were collected in individual and focus-group interviews with Grades 7 and 11 learners, principals, School Governing Board members, Life Orientation (LO) teachers and Heads of Department (HoD’s) of three secondary and three primary schools, as well as two schools for learners with special educational needs. Three themes emerged from the data analysis, namely approaches of participants to PE, implementation problems and challenges, as well as needs and recommendations of the participants to improve PE. Although the participants were in agreement regarding their perceptions of the value of PE, shortages of resources, the academic status of PE, time allocation, and large classes, were challenges perceived to compromise the quality of PE programmes in schools. Teachers and HoD’s indicated the need for more time allocation, and PE equipment and facilities, while learners highlighted their needs for fun and exciting activities, choice, fair practices and discipline in PE class. Recommendations included that PE should be made an examination subject, and the in-service training of LO teachers which address the needs of teachers and learners through creative teaching and equipment improvisation strategies should be addressed.</p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Physical education in rural primary schools of Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces, South Africa: Teachers’ perspectives 2021-03-17T07:47:51+00:00 C.J. Roux M. Sakala <p>This study explored the views and experiences of teachers about their teaching of Physical<br>Education (PE) in the Intermediate Phase of primary schooling. The study was conducted among<br>eight purposively sampled Life Skills (LS) primary school teachers in the Thulamela municipality,<br>Vhembe district, Limpopo province and the Gert Sibande district, Mpumalanga province of South<br>Africa. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with teachers from the selected<br>schools. Based on thematic data analysis, the main findings indicated that PE teachers from both<br>provinces experienced challenges regarding large classes, inadequate facilities and a lack of<br>opportunities for professional development. These challenges negatively affected the quality of PE<br>teaching and assessment procedures. The study concluded that these challenges were a direct result<br>of the marginalisation of the PE curriculum of and the disadvantages associated with schools in<br>rural environments.</p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Eastern Cape teachers’ perceptions of their pedagogical content knowledge in Physical Education 2021-03-17T07:58:10+00:00 S.A. Kahts-Kramer M.L. Baard <p>In South Africa, the Physical Education (PE) curriculum has been reimplemented after an absence of more than a decade. The new South African Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) stipulates that thirty minutes to two hours’ teaching time per week be allocated to PE. The reintegration poses challenges, as teachers are under- and unqualified, with low self-efficacy and actual ability in PE-based pedagogical content knowledge. The lack of qualified specialist PE teachers is a current national dilemma. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of Eastern Cape teachers’ Physical Education qualifications and self-efficacy in pedagogical content knowledge. Forty-two teachers from eight primary and secondary schools, both low- and highresourced and from both urban and rural areas, were purposively sampled. The Sport in Development Impact Assessment Tool, a structured questionnaire, was used to gather quantitative data. Descriptive statistics indicated that most teachers had no formal Physical Education qualifications (76.2%) or had not participated in Physical Education informal training (69.0%) or non-formal training (76.2%). There were variations in the teachers’ confidence levels regarding Physical Education-based pedagogical content knowledge. Only 31.8% were very confident. Most teachers (80.0%) believed that teacher training was a problem. It is imperative to improve teachers’ PE-based self-efficacy and professional competence through continuing professional teacher development.</p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Homeground Initiative: Fulfilling the remit of the South African government for quality physical education in rural KwaZulu- Natal 2021-03-17T08:07:10+00:00 G.B. Spacey C. Burnett C.J. Roux <p>Sportstec’s Homeground is an integrated community development initiative that focuses on an integrated child, school and community approach in&nbsp; rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. At its heart is a childhood to youth educational programme with a strong focus on links with five local schools. The scheme utilises physical education and school sport to build the capacity of teachers to deliver physical education, offer school sport and develop life skills. The aim of this study was to describe and critically reflect on the model of outsourcing physical education and school sport to Homeground. Interviews with key individuals including the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Sportstec, Homeground Head Coach (n=1) and principals or Heads of Department (n=5) ensured that statements of key decision-makers could be compared to narratives from five focus groups. Primary (n=9) and secondary school teachers (n=3) as well as learners (n = 16) participated in focus group discussions. Findings indicate that although the model adopted has produced positive results and could yield far reaching benefits, it has stalled due to existing barriers, which include funding, access to facilities, transport, the level of training, motivation and workload of teachers, as well as the level of professional preparation of Homeground staff to train others.</p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Evaluation of inexperienced pre-school teachers’ implementation of a 16-week perceptual-motor development programme in a lowresourced South African community 2021-03-17T08:13:46+00:00 Anita E. Pienaar Barend Paul Gerber Irma van Reenen <p>Previous research has reported higher percentages of at-risk development among children growing up in low-resourced communities, especially in perceptual-motor abilities. Such deficits can seriously hamper the acquisition of early literacy and numeracy necessary for formal school entry, while compromising the health and well-being of pre-schoolers due to physical inactivity. This study investigated whether pre-school teachers from a low resourced community, with no experience in conducting perceptual motor development programmes, can successfully implement a tailor-made intervention after a training workshop. By understanding the limitations that teachers have to design and deliver perceptual-motor programmes to pre-school children, possible solutions can be found to overcome the barriers and to maximise the perceptual-motor development of such children. Teachers presented a tailor-made perceptual-motor programme to 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers (n=44) after receiving a two-day training. The participants were, divided into an intervention group (n=31) that participated in the programme once a week for 16 weeks, and compared during a pre-, post- and retention test with a control group (n=21), using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2). Monthly on-site monitoring visits, as well as a focus group reflection after completing the programme, were used to identify problems that the teachers experienced during programme delivery. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and ANOVA (analysis of variance). Limited intervention effects were found. Although teacher buy-in was reported, many challenges were experienced, mainly due to the teachers’ low knowledge of the subject matter. Frequent and ongoing hands-on support by means of remedial support is essential, while also focusing on establishing key behaviours of effective programme delivery during training.</p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)