African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences <p>AJPHES publishes research papers that contribute to knowledge and practice, and also develops&nbsp;theory either as new information, reviews, confirmation of previous findings, application of new&nbsp;teaching/coaching techniques and research notes. Letters to the editor relating to the materials&nbsp;previously published in AJPHES could be submitted within 3 months after publication of the&nbsp;article in question. Such letter will be referred to the corresponding author and both the letter and&nbsp;response will be published concurrently in a subsequent issue of the journal.</p> <p>Manuscripts are considered for publication in AJPHES based on the understanding that they have&nbsp;not been published or submitted for publication in any other journal. In submitting papers for&nbsp;publication, corresponding authors should make such declarations. Where part of a paper has&nbsp;been published or presented at congresses, seminars or symposia, reference to that publication&nbsp;should be made in the acknowledgement section of the manuscript.</p> <p>AJPHES is published quarterly, i.e. in March, June, September and December.<br>Supplements/Special editions are also published periodically.</p> LAM Publications Limited en-US African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences 2411-6939 <p>Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal.</p><p>Copyright © LAM Publications Limited</p><p>All rights reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction and utilisation of this work in any form or by any electronic, mechanical means or other means, now known or thereafter invented, including photocopying and recording or in any information storage and retrieval system, is forbidden without prior written permission of the publishers.</p> Progressive resistance training irrespective of whey protein intake improves quality of life in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy <p>The study aimed to determine whether a progressive resistance training (PRT) programme and whey protein intake could affect the quality of life (QOL) in HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Sixty HIV-infected individuals were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups; a whey protein/PRT group, a placebo/PRT group, or a control group. Whole-body PRT was performed twice weekly for three months. Participants in the two intervention groups received, in a double-blinded placebo-controlled manner, either 20g of whey or placebo (maltodextrin) pre, and immediately post, each PRT session (40g total). To assess QOL, the WHOQOL-HIV BREF 31 questionnaire was administered at baseline and post the three-month intervention. Forty participants (mean age [SD]: 40.8 [±7.7] years; mean weight: 70.8 [±16] kg; mean BMI: 30.9 [±7.2] kg.m<sup>2</sup>), randomly assigned to either the whey protein/PRT group (n=13), the placebo/PRT group (n=17) or the control group (n=10), completed the study. Significant improvements were seen in the physical (p = 0.006), social relationships (p = 0.001), and the environmental (p = 0.001) domains, with both the placebo/PRT and whey/PRT groups demonstrating improvements from baseline to post-three months of training. There were no significant changes in the control group for any of the six QOL domains. Improvements were noted in the physical, social and environmental QOL domains of ART-treated HIV-infected individuals who participated in the PRT, regardless of whey protein intake. Supervised exercise training could mitigate the side effects of ART that impair body image and self-esteem, and result in marginalisation and stigmatisation of HIV-infected individuals.</p> Takshita Sookan Ayesha A. Motala Michael J. Ormsbee Jose Antonio Nombulelo P. Magula Umesh G. Lalloo Andrew J. Mckune Copyright (c) 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 27 3 288 303 Functional outcome at hospital discharge following first-time stroke <p>Stroke is one of the common causes of prolonged disability and patients are often discharged early from hospital prior to achieving functional&nbsp; independence. This study aimed to determine the functional outcomes in mobility and activities of daily living (ADLs) of first-time stroke survivors upon discharge from an acute inpatient hospital setting. Based on an observational cross-sectional design, stroke survivors (men: n = 35; women: n = 25) admitted to an acute care public hospital in Tshwane, South Africa, underwent mobility and ADLs assessment using the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index (MRMI) and the Barthel Index (BI), respectively upon discharge. Sixty stroke survivors (mean age: 47.5 ± 12.14 years) participated in the study; majority of whom had moderate stroke severity (8.68 ± 4.48) and 20.6 ± 12.19 days length of hospital stay. Rehabilitation was initiated within one week of stroke (4.6 days ± 3.37) and total rehabilitation per day was 25.65 ± 15.07 minutes. Mean functional scores were 75/100 (BI) with self-care tasks most affected and 32/40 (MRMI) with mobility (walking) and stair-climbing most affected. Severity of the stroke was found to influence ADLs and mobility outcomes. Moderate, negative, and significant correlation coefficients were found between severity of stroke and mobility (r= -0.50, p &lt; 0.001) as well as ADLs (r = -0.55, p &lt; 0.001). Stroke severity was the only factor that independently influenced functional outcome and mobility at discharge (p &lt; 0.001). The stroke survivors achieved functional independence in some mobility and ADLs variables at discharge, but majority of them still required rehabilitation at the time of discharge from the hospital.</p> T. Solomon N.E. Comley-White M.V. Ntsiea Copyright (c) 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 27 3 304 319 An analysis of female partners’ experiences, understanding and conceptions of voluntary medical male circumcision in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa <p>Studies conducted globally on the uptake of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) suggest that female partners are one of the major influences for the scale-up of VMMC. Educating and empowering women about medical circumcision could be a valuable strategy to promote&nbsp; acceptability and further enhancement of VMMC by men. The aim of this study was to analyse female partners' experiences, understanding and conceptions of VMMC in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa. Using a phenomenographic design, data were collected from twenty female partners who were purposively sampled from six different clinics that offer VMMC services in KZN, South Africa. A semi-structured interview guide was used to conduct individual face-to-face in-depth interviews, which were audio-recorded and subsequently transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed manually, coded and presented as descriptive categories of participants’ experiences, understanding and conceptions of VMMC. Participants’ experiences, understanding and conceptions of VMMC centred on perceived enhanced sexual pleasure and HIV prevention; however, the degree of partial protection against HIV was not clearly understood. The post-operative period appeared to be a major experience for female partners. Culturally sensitive communication strategies and appropriate health behaviour modification approaches should be taught to women regarding VMMC. Educating women on all platforms on the extent of partial protection provided by circumcision against infections is also important to prevent women from engaging in risky sexual behaviours.</p> Celenkosini Thembelenkosini Nxumalo Gugu Gladness Mchunu Copyright (c) 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 27 3 320 336 Artificial intelligence investigation into physical health activity during COVID-19 lockdown <p>This Artificial Intelligence (AI) assisted, case study type investigation consisted of a review of Fitbit and Inner Balance application (app) records before and during the initial five-week South African COVID 19 lockdown period. Physical health activity consisted of various stillness and movement forms, ranging from subtle energetic, soft styles such as yoga, Pilates, Chi Gung and Tai Chi, through hard style resistance training with and without weights, to vigorous running and swimming. These were typically followed by HeartMath Inner Balance meditation sessions of 5 to 10 minutes in duration, which yielded quantitative coherence and achievement data as well as qualitative experiential descriptions of exercise and meditation. In general, the Covid-19 lockdown appeared to have been associated with improved physical health specifically concerning improved activity, sleep, coherence, resistance and resilience. The AI devices assisted in providing objective evaluations into such perennial ethical healing exhortations as self-knowledge and healing. Findings and implications are discussed.</p> Stephen D. Edwards Copyright (c) 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 27 3 337 348 Association of fibrinogen, factors VII and VIII activities with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus in an adult black sample residing in a semi-rural area of Limpopo Province, South Africa <p>Diabetes mellitus (DM), either due to insulin deficiency or insulin resistance (IR), is a chronic metabolic disorder which affects more than 400 million people worldwide. Fibrinogen, FVII and FVIII are coagulation factors with hyperactivity reported in DM-induced cardiovascular disease, affecting the prognosis. It is not known whether their hyperactivity can be triggered in all types of DM or only where IR is involved or, merely co-occurs. Association studies to resolve this uncertainty are scarce, especially among black people. The purpose of the study was thus, to determine the association of fibrinogen, FVII and FVIII activities with DM and IR among black people residing in a semi-rural area. Fasting blood samples were collected from 201 participants aged 18-65 years (males: 41; 20%; females: 160; 80%) from Ga-Mothapo village located in Limpopo Province of South Africa. Glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were analysed on an ILab 300 Plus Chemistry System; while insulin level was determined on the Access Immunoassay System. Fibrinogen, FVII and FVIII activities were assessed using the ACL 200 Coagulation Analyser. Blood pressure, body weight and height were measured using Omron M5-1, Omron BF 400 and stadiometer, respectively. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 24.0. Binary logistic regression did not show any significant association between DM and the coagulation factors. Only FVII activity was significantly associated with IR, both in the binary (r = 5.202) and multivariate (r = 6.223) logistic regression analyses (p = 0.001), respectively. Insulin resistance is an independent risk factor for FVII hyperactivity.</p> M.M. Moraba N.P. Kataka S.S.R. Choma Copyright (c) 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 27 3 349 358 Differences in objective balance outcomes between elite female rugby players with and without a history of lateral ankle sprain <p>This study was conducted to examine differences in objective balance outcomes of female rugby players with (injury group; n = 12) and without (control group: n = 19) a history of lateral ankle sprains. The injured and the uninjured ankles in the previously injured players were also compared. An analytical cross-sectional design was used in this study, which was conducted at the Western Province Rugby Football Union’s (WPRFU) High Performance Centre in Cape Town, South Africa. The Noraxon myoPressureTM (Zebris) pressure plate was used to measure objective dynamic balance using COP (centre of pressure) parameters, namely sway area (SA), COP speed (COP sp), and time-to-boundary (TTB), during single-leg catch-and-throw, single-leg jump landing, and side stepping. The ankle sprain group had statistically significant differences in the SA outcome for the tasks catch-and-throw (p=0.04) and side step (p=0.01) compared with the control group. Regarding the TTB outcome in the treatment category, significant results for catch-and-throw (p=0.02) and side step (0=0.01) tasks were found in contrast to the controls. Further results yielded a substantial difference in COP speed outcome for the side step task (p=0.01) among players with a known history of ankle injury compared with the control category. Rugby players with a history of ankle sprain have altered dynamic balance and poor postural stability. Sway area and COP speed during side-step and catch-and-throw tasks can be used as practical measures of objective dynamic balance in rugby.</p> Melissa Martin Nassib Tawa Dominique C. Leibbrandt Quinette A. Louw Copyright (c) 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 27 3 359 374 School Sports: The case of south-east district of Botswana <p>Evaluation of school sports activities is crucial in determining specific strengths and challenges of the programme. This study was designed to evaluate the adequacy of school sports organisation in five-factor categories: sports supplies; teacher-coaches work situation; teacher-coaches development opportunities; organisation of school sports programme and support from national sports associations. A mixed-methods design was used. A Likert type questionnaire was used to collect data from 73 teacher-coaches and sports organisers (38 men; 35 women) drawn from 10 randomly selected schools in the south-east district of Botswana. Data were analysed with descriptive exploratory factor analysis. Results showed that teachers were satisfied with the following exploratory factor variables: adequacy of sports equipment, the seriousness that teachers put into coaching, organised ball sports coaching clinics for teachers, the inclusiveness of school sports and further development opportunities provided for talented student-athletes. They were however least satisfied with the factor variables, which included school sports budget, absence of coaching allowance, inappropriate sports organisers’ qualification as well as inadequate scheduling and support from the Department of Sports and Recreation. Concerning the five-factor categories, teachers were satisfied with the organisation of school sports and level of support school sports received from national sports associations. They however showed least satisfaction on adequacy of supplies, teacher-coaches development opportunities and coaching situation in the schools. Results were discussed in light of improvements in the following factor categories required for effective and sustainable management of school sports in the South-east district of the country: provision of adequate sports supplies, professional development of teacher-coaches and fostering an enabling coaching environment.</p> Israel Sayed Michael Seikano Anthony Faros Copyright (c) 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 27 3 Learners’ views on the teaching of physical education in selected South African rural primary schools <p>Physical education (PE) is one of the few subjects in the curriculum, which is characterised by childhood features such as playfulness and spontaneity. The primary beneficiaries of PE programmes in schools are learners. Therefore, understanding learners’ views on PE can result in pedagogic shifts that lean towards learner-centred approaches in PE delivery. The aim of this study was to explore learners’ views on the implementation of PE in selected rural primary schools in the Limpopo province of South Africa. Qualitative research approach, guided by audio-recorded focus group interviews, was used for data collection. A purposive sampling technique was used to select the participants (48 learners from 6 schools). Data were analysed using themes generated through the systematic coding of interrelated concepts and narrations. The findings of the study showed that learners enjoyed PE in schools and derived multiple health benefits from it. However, PE was negatively affected by inadequate teacher supervision, poor classroom management, large class sizes, poor or inadequate facilities and equipment, inauthentic assessment methods, unhealthy competition and bullying. The study recommends that PE should have adequate physical resources such as facilities and equipment as well as well trained teachers to optimise its implementation in schools.</p> M. Sakala C.J. Roux Copyright (c) 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 27 3 387 402