African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences <p>The African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences (AJPHES) is a peer-reviewed journal established to:</p> <p>i) provide a forum for health specialists, researchers in physical activity, professionals in human movement studies as well as other sport-related professionals in Africa, the opportunity to report their research findings based on African settings and experiences, and also to exchange ideas among themselves. Research-related contributions by specialists in physical activity and health sciences from other continents are also welcome.<br />ii) afford the professionals and other interested individuals in these disciplines the opportunity to learn more about the practice of the disciplines in different parts of the continent and around the world.<br />iii) create an awareness in the rest of the world about professional practices in the disciplines in Africa.</p> <p>AJPHES publishes research papers that contribute to knowledge and practice, and also develops theory either as new information, critical reviews, confirmation of previous findings, application of new teaching/coaching techniques and research notes. Letters to the editor, relating to the materials previously published in AJPHES, could be submitted within 3 months after publication of the article in question. Such letters will be referred to the corresponding author and both the letter and response will be published concurrently in a subsequent issue of the journal.</p> <p>Manuscripts are considered for publication in AJPHES based on the understanding that they have neither been published nor submitted for publication in any other journal. Corresponding authors should make such declarations in submitting papers for publication. Where a paper has been partly or wholly published or presented at congresses, seminars or symposia, reference to that publication should be made in the acknowledgement section of the manuscript.</p> <p>AJPHES is published quarterly, i.e., in March, June, September and December. Supplements/Special editions are also published periodically. Specific details about the publication of a supplement/special issue are obtainable from the Editor-In-Chief upon request.</p> LAM Publications Limited en-US African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences 2411-6939 <p>Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal.</p><p>Copyright © LAM Publications Limited</p><p>All rights reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction and utilisation of this work in any form or by any electronic, mechanical means or other means, now known or thereafter invented, including photocopying and recording or in any information storage and retrieval system, is forbidden without prior written permission of the publishers.</p> The importance of measuring biological age in longitudinal research of male and female teenagers: Data from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGAHLS) <p>In the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGAHLS) a group of Dutch teenage boys (n= 148) and girls (n= 159) were monitored during their teens from chronological ages 12 to 18 years. Anthropometric (height, weight and height velocity) and physiological [muscle speed, force and aerobic fitness (V̇ O2max)] characteristics are seemingly more appropriate to classify teenagers according to their biological age. Biological age was estimated (a) by measuring skeletal age from a yearly X-ray photograph of the teenagers’ left hand and wrist, and (b) by calculating the age at Peak Height Velocity (PHV) from height velocity curves. In both boys and girls, mean skeletal age corresponds quite well with their average chronological age. Skeletal age of boys and girls of the same chronological age can differ as much as 5 or 6 years. The steepest slope in height occurs in girls between skeletal ages 11 and 13 and in boys later between 13 and 15 years. Skeletal age and age at PHV can also be important in the description of physiological data such as aerobic fitness (V̇ O2max) and neuromuscular fitness (muscle strength and speed). In relation to skeletal age, the mean V̇ O2max in boys increases at a faster rate between 14 and 16 years than in girls. In relation to age at PHV, the peak in static arm strength and explosive leg strength increases one year after PHV in both boys and girls. This can explain the relative high bone fracture rate during growth spurt. We conclude that biological age can serve as an important parameter to teachers, sports coaches and other health-related professionals for individual enrolment in school physical education, sport clubs (selection and training) and injury prevention.</p> Han C.G. Kemper Makama Andries Monyeki Kotsedi Daniel Monyeki Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-08 2023-12-08 29 1 1 17 Seasonal variation in blood pressure and visceral fat indices among Lephalale rural children: Ellisras Longitudinal Study (ELS) <p>Hypertension and obesity have been a growing concern globally. Their prevalence continues to escalate, affecting a lot of people, especially in cold seasons. This leads to high mortality in cold seasons due to the increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases. This study investigated seasonal variation in blood pressure and visceral fat indices among the Ellisras (now known as Lephalale) population. The longitudinal study took place in Ellisras, Limpopo Province of South Africa. A total of 1 974 (1033 boys and 941 girls) participants aged 4−18 years enrolled in this study. The protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) was followed for all anthropometric measurements. Blood pressure was taken following the procedure of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s (NHBPEP) Working Group on Hypertension Control in Children and Adolescents. Obesity and hypertension prevalence was determined using frequency analysis. Cases of elevated systolic blood pressure (BP) weresignificantly higher in spring (6.6%) than in autumn (3.1%) among boys aged 4−7 years in 1999. Hypertension was substantially (p&lt;0.01) more prevalent in spring (12.8%) than autumn (0.8%) among girls aged 4−7 years in 1999. Among boys aged 8−11 years in 2001, obesity (estimated by waist circumference), was markedly (p&lt;0.01) higher in autumn (8.9%) than spring (1.3%). Obesity measured by waist-to-hip ratio, was significantly (p&lt;0.01) more preponderant in autumn (95.5%) than spring (84.2%) among girls aged 8−11 in 1999. Age-related seasonal variation in blood pressure and visceral fat indices was evident in Lephalale rural population of boys and girls.</p> Thandiwe N. Mkhatshwa Moloko Matshipi Kotsedi D. Monyeki Mafolwa S. Monyeki Han C.G. Kemper Violet K. Moselakgomo Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-08 2023-12-08 29 1 18 32 Determinants of poor nutritional status among school children in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa: A school-based study <p>Investigating the nutritional status of school-age children who may be at risk of faltered growth and development, subsequently impacting on their educational achievement, can never be overemphasised as one of the public health concerns in South Africa. This study assessed the determinants of poor nutritional status among dyads of school-age children and their mothers (n = 400; mean age: children, 9.0±1.9 years; mothers, 31.1±5.1 years) with predominantly poor sociodemographic backgrounds selected through multistage sampling from the six public primary schools in Ehlanzeni District in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Data collection included socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements, and dietary diversity based on Food and Agriculture Organization’s (FAO) 12 food groups from a 24-hour recall, classified as low scores (DDS: Dietary diversity ≤4), and medium scores (DDS &gt;4). Poor nutritional status among children was defined by z-scores between -3SD and -2SD for weight-for-age (underweight), height-for-age (stunting), and body mass index-for-age (thinness), while z-scores between +2SD and +3SD defined overweight/obesity. Overweight/obesity among mothers was determined using a BMI ≥ 25kg/m<sup>2</sup>. Data were analysed using STATA 17. About 42% of mothers were overweight/obese, while over half of their children were stunted (53%) underweight (26%), thin (21%), and overweight/obesity (17%). Prevalence of concurrent stunting and overweight/obesity was 22%, while concurrent stunting and underweight (47%) was the most prevalent coexisting undernutrition among children. Mean DDS was 3.45 ± 1.49, with 78% of children on low DDS and 22% on medium DDS. Legumes, nuts, and seeds (52%), cereals (48%), sweets (48%), and beverages (47%) were the mostly consumed food groups in contrast to eggs, fish and other seafoods, vegetables, and tuber and roots. Multiple regression analysis showed that children aged 10-13 years, underweight and living with relatives were more likely to be stunted, while being underweight was associated with children 10-13 years of age, maternal overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity. Boys had higher odds of thinness, while overweight/obesity among children was significantly associated with a medium DDS. Policies that govern the nutrition of school children to prohibit unregistered vendors from selling unhealthy foods around schools should be instituted and enforced. Such policies should cater for parental involvement working together with educators for the buy-in of the entire school community to boost children’s aspirations, academic performance, and the feeling of belonging to the school. Nutrition education for mothers/caregivers might also contribute to addressing poor nutritional status among school-age children.&nbsp;</p> Thulani Moiane Perpetua Modjadji Lindiwe Cele Paul Chelule Peter Modupi Mphekgwana Kotsedi Dan Monyeki Sphiwe Madiba Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-08 2023-12-08 29 1 33 55 Development of cardiometabolic risk factors among rural population of Lephalale, South Africa: A systematic review on Elliras longitudinal study <p>Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have been a growing concern globally, with their prevalence escalating at an alarming rate. While many studies have been conducted on NCDs in Africa, very few have investigated the longitudinal development of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the literature on studies which investigated the emergence of cardiometabolic risk factors among rural South African population. Literature search was done for papers published between 1996−2017, which investigated the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for NCDs. In all, 39 eligible studies were included. Their findings revealed that between 1996−2005, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was low among the rural South African population, with rates ranging between 3.2−12.2% for hypertension. Furthermore, physical activity and fitness prevalence were much lower among boys and girls in the same period. Between 2006−2017, the prevalence of obesity was high, particularly amongst females. The prevalence of diabetes and hypertension increased over the study period in rural South African population. Overall, the findings highlight the emergence and prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in the rural population.</p> K.D. Monyeki T.N. Mkhatshwa L.P. Thulare H.C.G. Kemper A.P. Kengne V.K. Moselakgomo Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-08 2023-12-08 29 1 56 69 Knowledge and behaviours of university students regarding risk factors associated with hypertension <p>Hypertension is a serious public health concern. In South Africa, there is a prevalence of hypertension up to 60%, which is worrisome. The&nbsp; aim of this study was to determine the&nbsp; relationship between university students’ knowledge and behaviours regarding the risk&nbsp; factors&nbsp; associated with hypertension in the Western Cape of South Africa. A cross-sectional design and&nbsp; convenience sampling technique&nbsp; were used to collect online questionnaire data from 153 male&nbsp; (39.9%) and female (60.1%) students 18 years and older (22.7±5.3 years).&nbsp; Mann-Whitney-U and&nbsp; Kruskal Wallis tests were used to examine between group differences among the participants,&nbsp; Further tests&nbsp; included Kendall’s tau, Chi-square, and linear regression analyses used to predict the&nbsp; students’ behaviours regarding hypertension from&nbsp; their knowledge. The results showed that 76.4% of students had good knowledge, while 95.3% displayed negative behaviours about&nbsp; hypertension. Significant differences based on gender, age-group, and year level were found between the students’ knowledge of the&nbsp; risk factors of hypertension and their behaviours about the disease of study (p&lt;0.001). However, the students’ knowledge of the risk&nbsp; factors had a weak positive&nbsp; association with their behaviours about hypertension, year level of study, alcohol consumption and&nbsp; drinking&nbsp; frequency (p&lt;0.05). Year level of study and gender were significant predictors of the&nbsp; students’ knowledge of the risks of hypertension&nbsp; (p&lt;0.05). Despite that the university students&nbsp; were knowledgeable about the risk factors of hypertension, they displayed negative&nbsp; behaviours about hypertension, which made them at risk for developing hypertension.&nbsp;</p> Jaron Ras Earl Visagie Damian Munroe Chiquita Foster Lloyd Leach Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-08 2023-12-08 29 1 70 88 Nyaope consumption by South African youth - Reflections on the neglect of rehabilitation centres for substance use disorder: A systematic review <p>There is a high incidence of substance use disorder (SUD) associated with the administration of nyaope among South African youths in&nbsp; previously disadvantaged communities. Nyaope’s active&nbsp; ingredient is higher grade heroin mixed with household chemical components&nbsp; only known by the dealers. While the health effects of nyaope are in conclusive, the higher number of patients suffering from SUD is mainly attributed to the lack of fully functional public rehabilitation centres in the country. This study was carried out to reflect on the neglect of rehabilitation centres for people suffering from SUD. Information about the effectiveness of local rehabilitation centres in dealing with SUD patients wasreviewed based on literature published in a number of databases such&nbsp; as PubMed, Science Direct, EBSCO,&nbsp; and Google Scholar. A total of 8 out of 250 published research&nbsp; articles from 2000 to 2023 were selected using various combinations of&nbsp; keywords: “adulterated&nbsp; drugs”; ‘heroin”; “Crystal meth”; “Methamphetamine”; “rehabilitation centres”; and “South African youth”. Only&nbsp; scientific research articles published in English were used in the review. Findings of eligible studies were summarised in tabular&nbsp; format based on the following variables:&nbsp; author,sample size, type of drugs, reasonsforsubstance usage and state of the rehabilitation&nbsp; centers. In South Africa, disparities in the quality of services provided by rehabilitation centres in&nbsp; predominantly white communities and&nbsp; those in historically disadvantaged areas were reported. The&nbsp; poorly managed state of rehabilitation centres was mainly attributed to&nbsp; inadequate funding and&nbsp; poor human capacity. The findings implicate the need for multidimensional strategies to curb the&nbsp; prevalence of&nbsp; SUD among the youth.&nbsp;</p> Matome M. Sekhotha Willie M.U. Daniels Dee Muller Shalort Malatswana Khethani T. Mathikhi Tobias J. Mokwena Khosa N. Vinny Eliot Sibuyi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-08 2023-12-08 29 1 89 117 Indications and outcomes of McDonald cerclage in singleton pregnancy <p>Cervical insufficiency is one of the major causes of preterm birth. It accounts for 1% of the pregnant population. Cervical cerclage prevents preterm birth in singleton pregnancies with controversy around its indications and outcomes. This study was conducted to examine indications and outcomes of McDonald cervical cerclage in women with singleton pregnancy from January 2014 to December 2019 at Pelonomi Hospital in Mangaung district metro of Bloemfontein, South Africa. A retrospective analysis of 22 files of pregnant women who had McDonald cerclage for singleton pregnancy during the study period was carried out. Data were analysed descriptively. Group comparisons by means of t-tests and Chi square statistics at p ≤ 0.05 were undertaken. Outcomes among the three indications of cerclage insertion were determined for (i) perinatal outcome and (ii) duration of pregnancy. A total of 38 McDonald cerclages were inserted, giving prevalence of 0,16%. Of the 31 records received, 22 met inclusion criteria. Nine, eight and five cerclages were history-, ultrasound- and emergency-indicated, respectively. The median gestation age at booking was 194 days. There was no statistical difference in outcomes amongst the groups (p = 0,89, 0,87 and 0,14) in history, ultrasound and emergency indicated cerclages, respectively).Similarly, there was no statistically significant evidence to show that McDonald cerclage preventedpreterm birth in singleton pregnancy in terms of outcomes amongst subgroups used to indicate insertion of cerclage. However, the limited study sample and subgroups, implicates the need for a larger study population and perhaps, a multicentre design, to validate the present findings.</p> G. Tsoke S.M. Baloyi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-08 2023-12-08 29 1 118 133 The association of obesity, somatotype and high salt intake with hypertension among adults in Lephalale, South Africa: Ellisras Longitudinal Study <p>Hypertension has emerged as a significant public health concern, and has been primarily associated with obesity, high salt intake as well as somatotype. This study aimed to assess the association of obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), high salt intake and somatotype with hypertension amongst adults in Lephalale (formerly known as Ellisras) rural area, and to evaluate which of the three variables is the best predictor of hypertension. The dietary consumption of salt was determined using a 24-hour recall questionnaire. This cross-sectional study consisted of 739 (men, n = 370; mean age: 23.72 ± 2.02 years; women, n =362; mean age: 23,86 ± 2.04 years) participants, aged 21–29 years. Blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric measurements were done in accordance with standard procedures. The prevalence of obesity, somatotype, high salt intake, and high BP was determined using frequency analysis. Linear regression models were performed to determine the relationship between obesity, somatotype, and salt intake with BP, and the receiver operating curve (ROC) used to determine the best predictor of hypertension. The prevalence of high systolic BP was significantly (p&lt;0.001) higher for males (13%) than females (1.7%). A significant (p&lt;0.015) association between diastolic BP and salt intake (Beta= 7.86 95% CI: 1.87 − 13.85) was noted even after adjusting for age and gender (Beta = 7.24 95% CI: 1.38 − 13.10). A substantial (p&lt;0.037) negative association between BMI and diastolic BP (Beta = -2.57 95% CI: -5.00 – -0.149) was evident when adjusted for gender and age. Sodium intake was significantly (p&lt;0.05) associated with diastolic BP, but not systolic BP in the study sample. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis showed that obesity was a better predictor of hypertension thansomatotype variables and salt intake. Future longitudinal studies are needed to validate the present findings.</p> M.F. Ramohlola T.N. Mkhatshwa T.T. Raphadu S.L. Lebelo M. Matshipi K.D. Monyeki M.A. Monyeki Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-08 2023-12-08 29 1 134 146