African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences <p>AJPHES publishes research papers that contribute to knowledge and practice, and also develops&nbsp;theory either as new information, reviews, confirmation of previous findings, application of new&nbsp;teaching/coaching techniques and research notes. Letters to the editor relating to the materials&nbsp;previously published in AJPHES could be submitted within 3 months after publication of the&nbsp;article in question. Such letter will be referred to the corresponding author and both the letter and&nbsp;response will be published concurrently in a subsequent issue of the journal.</p> <p>Manuscripts are considered for publication in AJPHES based on the understanding that they have&nbsp;not been published or submitted for publication in any other journal. In submitting papers for&nbsp;publication, corresponding authors should make such declarations. Where part of a paper has&nbsp;been published or presented at congresses, seminars or symposia, reference to that publication&nbsp;should be made in the acknowledgement section of the manuscript.</p> <p>AJPHES is published quarterly, i.e. in March, June, September and December.<br>Supplements/Special editions are also published periodically.</p> en-US <p>Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal.</p><p>Copyright © LAM Publications Limited</p><p>All rights reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction and utilisation of this work in any form or by any electronic, mechanical means or other means, now known or thereafter invented, including photocopying and recording or in any information storage and retrieval system, is forbidden without prior written permission of the publishers.</p> (Prof. Abel L. Toriola) (Prof. Daniel Goon) Mon, 26 Apr 2021 09:29:01 +0000 OJS 60 Scuba divers’ attitudes towards responsible behaviour and profile <p>Within the global tourism industry exists the niche sector of alternative tourism, which includes adventure tourism. A sub-category of adventure tourism is self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (Scuba diving). The goal of this study was to identify how a scuba diver’s underwater behaviour is related to a set of predisposing characteristics. This study used a quantitative research approach rooted in the theory of positivism to explain scuba diving tourism within a South African context. A comprehensive literature review exploring the uniqueness of adventure tourism and scuba diving and the importance of coral reefs within marine protected areas (MPAs) is presented. In addition to the literature review, an online survey was conducted among South African divers (n=137). The survey aimed to determine the divers’ level of specialisation, environmental awareness, and demographic information. The findings indicated that while the respondents were generally evenly distributed demographically, their experience and environmental awareness improved the longer they were involved in scuba diving. Respondents were observed to be generally responsible divers and to have a broad understanding of the coral reef ecosystem. These findings support existing studies conducted at dive sites across the world, which indicate that responsible diver behaviour increases with the level of specialisation.</p> M.E. Allkins, N.N. Tshipala, U.P. Hermann Copyright (c) Fri, 23 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The relationship between leisure participation and mental health among respondents in the Eastern Cape, South Africa <p>The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure participation and perceived mental health benefits among respondents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The research gap was identified by the fact that mental health has not received as much attention in research as physical well-being. Using quantitative methods, a questionnaire was employed to collect data from 247 respondents during four leisure activities; namely, beachfront relaxation, a horse racing event, a church event, and a community football match. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 25 software. The results of the factor analysis revealed six key dimensions of perceived mental health benefits among the respondents; namely, goal orientation, positive emotion, overcoming negative emotions, fostering relationships, and peace of mind. The main finding of this study is that respondents attribute the most benefit from leisure activities to positive emotions (happiness, peace, joy, and excitement). Further exploration of the effect sizes was done to ascertain possible differences between categories on age and respondent activity. The results revealed no significant statistical differences between the groups (p=0.30). The primary conclusion from this study is that the mental health benefits of leisure participation cut across demographic variables. Implications of this study are discussed in the context of individuals, the tourism industry, and government policy.</p> P.N. Acha-Anyi, A. Acha-Anyi Copyright (c) Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Positional running capacities and in-game demands of South African university level rugby players <p>Rugby is a complex contact sport consisting of varying intensities of locomotion, interspersed with stationary and contact periods. An increasing professionalisation of the sport even at university and school level has engendered a growing need to collect objective data regarding the physical attributes of rugby players. The aim of the study was to assess the positional running capacities and demands of university rugby players. Twenty-nine male rugby players (age: 22.5 ± 1.2 years; body mass: 96.1 ± 13.26 kg; stature: 182.6 ± 7.5 cm) completed a battery of tests, which included: 10 m + 40 m sprint, yo-yo intermittent recovery (Yo-Yo IRT), repeated sprint ability test (RSA), and had their in-game running demands evaluated. Positional differences between forwards and backs were reported (p&lt;0.05) for Yo-Yo IRT: 19.2 ± 2 vs 21.1 ± 2; 10 m sprint: 1.7 ± 0.1s vs 1.6 ± 0.0s; 40 m sprint test: 5.4 ± 0.3s vs 5.1 ± 0.1s; 5 m RST: 738.9 ± 31.1m vs 767.3 ± 20.9m. Additionally, a significant difference in-game distances between forwards and the backs (absolute: 5564.1 ± 842.5m vs 6955.9 ± 780.9m; relative: 54.7 ± 9.0 m.min-1 vs 60.6 ± 8.7m.min-1) were obtained. The assessment of university-level rugby players showed that backline players tend to record higher aerobic capacity, acceleration and sprint values than forwards. Evidence has shown that during matches, backs tend to cover more distance and spend more time in each speed band than forwards. The findings were discussed in the light of their implications for competitive rugby performance.</p> H.L. Liebenberg, A.J.J. Lombard, A. Green Copyright (c) Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between agility and selected performance variables in male A-division rugby players in Gaborone, Botswana <p>The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationships between agility and hip joint flexibility, muscle mass and anaerobic power in male A-division rugby players in Gaborone, Botswana. Simple random sampling technique was used to select eighty players from four A-division rugby teams in Gaborone. Testing took place over a three-day period in the morning. On the first day, body mass, agility (Illinois agility test) and flexibility (Sit and reach test) were measured. Skinfold measurements were taken on the second day and the Wingate anaerobic test was undertaken on the third day. All measurements were taken at the University of Botswana’s Exercise Physiology Laboratory, the University of Botswana stadium, and the gymnasium of the Botswana Defence Force. Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficients were computed to examine the relationships between agility and the physical variables. The players’ agility was not significantly related to hip flexibility (r = .030; p= 0.789) and fatigue index (r = .063; p= 0.577). Conversely, agility was significantly related to fat-free muscle mass (r = .355; p= .001), anaerobic peak power (r = .229; p = .041), and average anaerobic power (r = .257, p = .021). The findings implicate the need for physical trainers and coaches to encourage players to increase fat-free muscle mass, anaerobic peak power, and average anaerobic power to improve their performances in skills requiring agility. Also, coaching programmes should be designed to emphasise the development of these attributes in rugby players.</p> K. Mosimakoko, I.U. Onyewadume Copyright (c) Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Haematological disorders in HIV-infected people in a semi-rural area in the Capricorn district of Limpopo province, South Africa <p>Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a global epidemic with about 37 million people infected worldwide. Infection prevalence in South Africa is approximately 17% of the total global cases, with high mobility and mortality rates. Despite the high statistics of HIV infection in South Africa, little is known regarding the burden of haematological disorders in people infected with HIV. The purpose of the study was, therefore, to determine and describe haematological disorders in HIV-infected people on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and those not on ART, in the semi-rural villages of Ga-Mothapo in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study was cross-sectional, descriptive and quantitative. Student t-test and Chi-square were the applied statistics. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26.0 was used for data analysis. Factor VIII, fibrinogen, proteins C and S activity levels were determined on ACL 200 coagulation analyser; CD4+ T cell count was performed on CD4 PIMA analyser; full blood count was performed on AcT.5 diff Haematology analyser and HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab combo test devices were used for HIV screening. The prevalence rates for HIV-naïve and ART groups were respectively as follows: Anaemia = 13.0%, 11.9%; leukopenia =20.9%, 31.0%; thrombocytopenia = 9.0%, 7.6%; low CD4+ T cell count = 10.1%, 14.3%; high protein C=19.4%, 15.7%; high protein S=31.3%, 24.0%; hyperfibrinogenaemia =43.3%, 15.5% and FVIII hyperactivity =35.8%, 27.4%. Differential counts: 35% neutrophils, 35% metamyelocytes and 30% band cells; marked red blood cell anisocytosis, deep basophilic lymphocytes and monocytes and, giant platelet with reduced granulation. On this basis, HIV infection and ART had impact on the haematological parameters.</p> R.M. Swago, M.M. Moraba, F. Mashinya Copyright (c) Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 General practitioners’ knowledge, perception and utilisation of services in the Chiropractic management of musculoskeletal disorders in Harare, Zimbabwe <p>The World Health Organization ranks musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) as the second largest cause of premature termination of one’s career. Consequently, the burden of MSD and limited primary health care in developing countries warrants the need for an integrative approach to health care. Although Chiropractic Therapy (CT) has emerged as a well-recognised form of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), particularly in MSD, there is a paucity of literature on knowledge and perceptions of General Practitioners (GPs) about CT in developing countries. Therefore, this study examined the knowledge, perceptions and utilisation of GPs towards CT. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study obtained data from 48 GPs in private practice in the Avenues suburb of Harare, Zimbabwe. Of the 48 respondents (55% response rate from 88 questionnaires distributed), approximately one-third (31.3%; n=15) never heard of CT. Of those who had heard of CT (n=33), almost two-thirds (66.7%; n=22) believed chiropractors to be competent in the treatment of musculoskeletal complaints and approximately one-third (35.4%; n=17) in the treatment of neurological ailments. There was a positive correlation between knowledge and perception (r=0.668) of CT. However, the association between knowledge and utilisation of CT services was not statistically significant (p=0.4), while the relationship between perception and CT utilisation was statistically significant (p=0.006). This finding suggests that the perception of CT influenced a GP’s referral of patients to a chiropractor. The study highlights the need for improving the knowledge and perceptions of CT among GPs as a basis for improving CT utilisation in developing countries, where an interdisciplinary approach to MSD may serve as an efficient alternative to conventional medical care.</p> Sylivia S. Thondhlana, Colette M. Kell, Julian D. Pillay Copyright (c) Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Experiences of operational managers regarding their supervision at primary health care facilities in the North West province, South Africa <p>Ineffective supervision by operational managers in primary health care (PHC) facilities remain a challenge in developing countries. Understanding the experiences of operational managers regarding their supervision could exert a positive impact on the management of PHC facilities. This study described and explored experiences of operational managers regarding their supervision in PHC facilities. The study also explored how supervision by operational managers could be facilitated effectively. A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory and contextual research was conducted in the PHC facilities in the four sub-districts of the North West Province, South Africa. The population included operational managers who have supervised the PHC facilities for at least a year. Purposive sampling technique was applied to select 23 operational managers who participated in semi-structured in-depth focus group interviews. Data analysis using Tesch’s method yielded two themes, categories and sub-categories. Amongst others, operational managers experienced shortage of nursing staff manifested by limited time for supervision and administrative duties. Experiences of lack of essential equipment and poor infrastructure were also reported as a contributory factor to poor delegation of duties and supervision. It was evident from the findings that operational managers should be supported to enhance the quality of supervision at PHC facilities.</p> Maserapelo Gladys Serapelwane, Mofatiki Eva Manyedi Copyright (c) Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Physiological effects of physical activity on neurocognitive function in people living with HIV: A systematic review of intervention and observational studies <p>The inadequacy of antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders paves a way for regular physical activity as a lifestyle modification alternative. However, uncertainty exists among scholars regarding the use of physical activity as a means of managing cognitive disorders among HIV-seropositive individuals. The objective of the review was to examine the potential therapeutic value of physical activity intervention in the rehabilitation of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) experiencing cognitive disorders. Undertaken in this study was a systematic literature review by narrative and quantitative synthesis examining studies from 2000 to 2019. Data sources for the review included the following electronic databases: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL (The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Academic Search Complete, PsycINFO and relevant reference lists. The eligibility criteria for the selected studies included in the review were interventional and observational studies, which investigated the interaction of physical activity and cognitive function in adult PLWHIV. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The study outcomes were cognitive function, aerobic fitness and sociodemographic characteristics. Meta-analyses were executed using RevMan 5.3 and MedCalc, with alpha set at 0.05. A total of 2516 PLWHIV with a mean age of 54±8 years and education, 13±2 years participated in the studies reviewed. Men constituted a greater percentage (60%) of the study participants. Physical activity was not superior to control over cognitive function (Z=0.86; p=0.39; Tau<sup>2</sup>=61.79 and I<sup>2</sup>=94%). However, there was a significant correlation between physical activity and neurocognitive function (r=0.26; p&lt;0.05). It was concluded that physical activity was not superior to control over cognitive function in PLWHIV with no reported cognitive deficit.</p> M.C. Nweke, N. Mshunqane, N. Govender, O.A. Akinpelu Copyright (c) Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000