Anorectal malformations in neonates
Background: Anorectal malformations (ARM) are associated with congenital anomalies and other risk factors, yielding a poor prognosis, especially in neonatal life. Objectives: This study was performed to identify the congenital anomalies as a factor of poor prognosis (mortality) in such patients. Settings: Department of Pediatric surgery, The Children’s Hospital and The Institute of Child Health, Lahore. Design: Prospective observational study, with statistical support. Materials and Methods: The information n the demography, clinical features, investigations, management performed, and outcome was entered in the designed proforma and analysed with the help of statistical software EpiInfo version 3.5.1. Statistical test: Chi-square test was used to determine statistical signifi cance of the results. Results: Of 100 neonates with ARM, 77 were male and 23, female (3.4:1). The mean age at presentation was 3.4 days (range, 12 hrs to 28 days). In 60 patients (60%), the presentation was imperforate anus without a clinically identified fistula. In 28 patients (28%), associated anomalies were present. The common associated anomalies were urogenital (10%), cardiovascular (8%), and gastrointestinal (6%). Down’s syndrome was present in 8 (8%) patients. A total of 15 (15%) deaths occurred in this study. In patients having associated congenital anomalies, 11 deaths occurred, whereas, 4 deaths were in patients without associated anomalies (P < 0.5). Conclusion: The mortality is higher in neonates with ARM having associated congenital anomalies.
Key words: Congenital anomalies, imperforate anus, mortality, neonate