Burden of hyperuricemia among ambulatory patients with Type 2 diabetes at Kenyatta National Hospital diabetes outpatient clinic
Background: The prevalence of hyperuricemia has been increasing around the world accompanied by a rapid increase in obesity and diabetes. Hyperuricemia has been positively associated with hyperglycemia. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence especially in Kenya where there is limited data on prevalence of hyperuricemia in diabetes. Objective: To determine the prevalence of hyperuricemia among ambulatory patients with Type 2 diabetes at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Simple random sampling was employed to recruit eligible participants. Height, weight and blood pressure was taken from participants, and 6-8mls of peripheral blood was drawn to determine serum uric acid and HbA1c levels.
Results: A total of 150 participants were recruited, with 66% females, 34% males, and a mean (SD) age of 56.4 years. The mean (SD) duration of follow-up for diabetes was 10.3 years. Hypertension was a comorbidity in 65.3% of the participants, and obesity in 36%. The mean (SD) HbA1c levels were 7.76% and 42.7% had good glycemic control. Prevalence of hyperuricemia is at 19.3% in the study. The mean (SD) serum uric acid levels were 5.02mg/dl (299μmol/L).No correlation was found between hyperuricemia and duration of diabetes and glycemic control. Relationship between hyperuricemia and the variables of age, BMI and hypertension did not achieve statistical signifi cance. Female gender achieved signifi cance with a P value of 0.046.
Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of hyperuricemia at 19.3% in this study population especially in the females above the age of 40 years. Patients were on long-term follow-up for diabetes, the glycemic control was average to good. This forms a basis for regularly screening patients for serum uric acid levels in the clinics. Further studies with larger number of patients with diabetes are needed to explore the relationship of hyperuricemia to other clinical and laboratory parameters.
Key words: Serum uric acid, Type 2 diabetes