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Contraceptive use in Nigeria has remained low despite the efforts of government and non-governmental agencies to increase its uptake. Most studies on contraceptive use have focused on individual-level determinants and evidence is sparse on the influence of social or community context. This study examines the influences of contextual factors on modern contraceptive use in Nigeria. We used data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, and a sample of 12,186, currently married women aged 15-49 years. Multilevel logistic regression which provides a flexible modeling for hierarchical data was used to examine the effects of contextual factors on contraceptive use. Findings revealed considerable low usage of contraception across the regions of Nigeria. Living in high and moderate ethnically diverse communities and communities that have high proportion of educated women was significantly associated with increased usage. The findings provide useful information for policy makers to consider the social milieu in which women live for effective family planning interventions.
Keywords: Contraception, community, ethnic-diversity, multilevel, social milieu