Socioeconomic and reproductive factors associated with condom use within and outside of marriage among urban pregnant women in Zambia

  • Chipepo Kankasa
  • Margaret Siwale
  • Francis Kasolo
  • Ayako Nishiyama
  • Hiroshi Terunuma
  • Naomi Wakasugi


A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on 470 pregnant women in Lusaka, Zambia. Multivariate analysis revealed school attendance and child deaths as independently significant variables positively associated with HIV seropositivity. Among women with fidelity, HIV prevalence was not significantly lower, and condom use was much lower than among women who were having extramarital affairs. Factors significantly associated with condom use within and outside of marriage differed-age and number of live births within, and sexual transmission knowledge outside of marriage. School attendance was not effective for gaining knowledge on sexual transmission or condom use. Regular own earning was significantly effective for condom use in both groups, irrespective of school attendance. The following should be implemented intensively: effective education on HIV and sex in and out of school before early sexual debut, further implementation of family planning with emphasis on condom use, and empowering women by assisting with their economic independence.

African Journal of Reproductive Health Vol. 9(3) 2005: 128-136

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eISSN: 1118-4841