African Journal of Social Work <p>The <em>African Journal of Social Work </em>is an international refereed journal that serves as a forum for exchanging ideas and knowledge and discussing issues relevant to social work practice, education and research in the African region. Producing 2 issues a year, the Journal is published by the National Association of Social Workers (Zimbabwe) and is committed to reflecting culturally relevant and appropriate social work practice in Africa. Social work is seen as a broad-based profession that can vary from individual casework to community development and policy-related concerns.</p> <p>African Journal of Social Work (AJSW) content&nbsp;is licensed under a&nbsp;<a title="Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>.</p> National Association of Social Workers, Zimbabwe en-US African Journal of Social Work 1563-3934 The copyright belongs to: National Association of Social Workers Zimbabwe. Building a successful career in social work: issues, prospects, and challenges <p>A career is an individual professional journey, achieved especially through such aspects as learning, mentoring and work experience, which is&nbsp; usually preceded by special training. Mentoring is an important component for all professions including social work. However, in Africa, social workers do not have many opportunities for mentoring. This is because the system to provide mentoring is not so developed. Mentoring provides upcoming social workers with direction but also builds their confidence by learning, listening to or observing experienced social workers. In this paper, the author, a Professor of Social Work, uses his experience as a social worker for many years to tackle the issue of career building for social workers. The paper examines issues, prospects and challenges based on a presentation the author made at a graduation ceremony at the University of Lisbon, in Portugal.</p> <p><strong>Key Terms</strong>: career, social work, mentoring, challenges, Africa</p> Rodreck Mupedziswa Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 10 2 1 8 Comparative review of child sexual abuse practices and policies in Kenya and the United States of America (USA) <p>Child sexual abuse is an umbrella that includes many forms of abuse including interfamilial abuse, abuse by persons unknown to the child and commercial exploitation, which includes sex trafficking, prostitution, exposure to and forced participation in pornography and use and abuse within a growing industry of sex tourism. Child sexual abuse policies and practice vary widely across the globe. Diverse social constructions, distinct&nbsp; cultural perspectives and differing political agendas create varied policies and practices to the same phenomena in a multitude of countries. This article examines similarities and differences in policies and practices enacted to respond to the problem of child sexual abuse in Kenya and the&nbsp; United States of America, via a lens of social welfare regimes. The liberal welfare regime of the United States of America emphasizes a child&nbsp; protective model as a response to child sexual abuse, while the social democratic welfare state of Kenya promotes a family service approach. Both&nbsp; models offer certain strengths, which must be examined within the social context of each nation. Policy proposals aimed at prevention of child sexual abuse and implications for social work in Africa, specifically Kenya are included in the analysis.</p> <p><strong>Key Terms:</strong>&nbsp; child sexual abuse; child welfare policies; social welfare regimes; United States; Kenya </p> Jennifer Reddin Cassar Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 10 2 9 15 Colonial legacy and professional imperialism in social work: Calls for Bharatiyakaran / Indianisation of social work education in India <p>Overreliance on linear theories of social change particularly and denial of autonomy to indigenous fundamental social institutions are major tentacles of colonial legacy which has created obstacles for developing independent perspectives on social work in India. It has also critically examined the adverse impacts of colonial legacy on indigenous social institutions and traditional practices in India related to health, family welfare and women empowerment, environment conservation and village development besides making recommendations for revival of the social work discipline in India with a vision to place it on right track for meaningful national and global contributions. The paper has recommended for adopting the Bharatiyakaran/Indianisation of social work education in India.</p> <p><strong>Key Terms</strong>: Social Change, Professional Imperialism, colonial legacy, Bharatiyakaran/Indianisation of Social Work Education, Afrocentric<br>Social Work</p> Siddheshwar Shukla Bishnu Mohan Dash Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 10 2 16 22 Teaching resilience skills to social work students and others <p>Social work as a profession is a growing area in many Indigenous community groups around the world. Students who choose to study social work have some strong voices and commitments to serve vulnerable families, individuals and community groups that are facing some social, health and political issues. Building resilience resources and skills for social work students who are studying social work course is part of the social work roles. In real life, social issues and health issues challenged many people in different levels which caused emotional challenges, feeling of uncertain and helpless. Therefore, teaching resilience skills to social work students is very important in order for students to be well-prepared and managed complex issues of their clients in the field of social work such as emotional reaction of clients and work pressures. This paper is a literature review of resilience that used Ubuntu concept from African Indigenous perspective in humanity and community. The paper first provided introduction of<br>Ubuntu philosophy to reader. Second, the paper provided background of the research problem, which is the need of resilience skills in social work teaching. Finally, the paper summarised resilience skills that are suitable to social work practitioners, social work students and social work lecturers in their field of practice to support their clients and themselves while dealing with complex and emotional issues in the fields.</p> <p><strong>Key Terms</strong>: social work, resilience skills, students, emotional challenges, teaching, research, Ubuntu concept, African Indigenous </p> William Abur Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 10 2 23 31 Fear of caesarean section, infertility and utilization of traditional birth attendant among ever-pregnant women in Obafemi-Owode, Ogun State, Niger <p>Maternal healthcare and mortality, among other troubling health issues, are on the front burner in developing countries, Nigeria in particular. This study explored the influence of perceived causes of caesarean section, fear of caesarean section and infertility on the continued utilization of traditional birth attendants (TBAs). The study employed the qualitative method, utilizing in-depth interview to collect data from thirty (30) women who have ever been pregnant and ever used TBA. The data were content analysed using themes. It was found that the participants believed that these conditions can be treated using traditional herbs and concoction prepared by TBAs; hence, the preference for TBAs. Placenta size, low blood count, baby in the breech position, high blood pressure and prolonged labour were perceived and identified as factors that warrant caesarean section. Participants said the use of TBAs for child delivery is not only pain free, requiring no caesarean section, but also affordable and accessible; TBAs use incantation whenever ‘delivery is difficult’. Thus, the study recommends that women should be sensitised on the circumstances that warrant caesarean section for child delivery and its probable effects. This will guide them in making informed decision on the place of delivery to avert maternal and neonatal risks.</p> <p><strong>Key Terms</strong>: Infertility, fear, traditional birth attendant, caesarean section, prolonged labour, Nigeria</p> Samuel Ojima Adejoh Tunde A. Alabi Peter Osazuwa Motunrayo Ayobami Olufeyisan Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 10 2 32 41 Socio-economic profile of unemployed population in Juba county: A study in south Sudan <p>South Sudan as a nation has experienced several forms of economic, political and social unrest due to unemployment situation in the country. The South Sudan Government has realized problem of unemployment especially the urban youth, and mitigate it through specific policy interventions. This paper attempts to support policy making in identifying the unemployed persons and knowing their profile. Information were obtained through a primary survey of 100 households with population size of 690 across five payam (sub-county) in Juba County. The results show that the unemployed members among the sample households are those with fairly large families with high dependency ratio and low literacy rate especially among the girls and women.</p> <p><strong>Key Terms</strong>: Unemployment, socio-economic profile, literacy, community, dependents, economic status, primary and secondary occupation, household assets, amenities, standard of living, Sudan</p> Devanga Pruthviraj Akashraj Kom Kom Geng Atem Ananth S. Panth Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 10 2 42 50 Conditions exposing students of Bahir Dar University to internet addiction, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia: A phenomenological study <p>Internet addiction is an excessive-compulsive use of internet that causes psychological, social, family, school, health, and work impairments. Previous studies reported that, there is an increasing rate of internet addiction in colleges and higher educational institutions. But, conditions exposing students of higher educational institutions to internet addiction are not well explored in African context in general and among Ethiopian university students in particular. The purpose of this study was to explore conditions exposing students of Bahir Dar University to internet addiction. To this end, a phenomenological qualitative approach was used as an appropriate method to undertake an in-depth analysis of the issue under study. Data were collected from nineteen purposefully selected internet addicted students using a semi structured in-depth interview guide and the collected data were analysed using thematic analysis method under six themes. The study findings revealed that absence of student friendly recreational centers in the university, peer pressure, low parental control, gender insensitive social environment, feelings of academic seniority, and stress are the most prominent conditions exposing Bahir Dar University students to internet addiction. These findings have an implication for social work education that the pros and cons of internet technology should be part of academic curriculums starting from early grade schools in order to help students have earlier level conscious understanding of the internet service. So that, they can protect themselves from internet addiction when they go to universities.</p> <p><strong>Key Terms</strong>: Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, Undergraduate students, Internet addiction</p> Habtamu Muche Kerebih Asrese Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 10 2 51 60 Opportunities and challenges associated with use of indigenous parenting practices on child discipline <p>In Zimbabwe, like elsewhere in the world, the issue of child discipline remains a grey area in parenting. The major debate revolves around what constitute better parenting styles between traditional and modern child nurturing systems. The major focus was to investigate the opportunities and challenges of indigenous parenting practices on child discipline among BaTonga speaking in Binga District, Zimbabwe. The study was inspired by the current emotional debates regarding the issue of parenting and child discipline in Zimbabwe and beyond. The general observation by the researchers was that, many synopses on parenting and child discipline have been written focusing on contemporary child protection protocols without attempting to assess the efficacy of indigenous systems in handing child disciplinary. Inspired by Afrocentric views, the study attempted to verify the usefulness and challenges of indigenous parenting methods on child discipline in modern day society. Qualitative design was used to collect data from the participants. On opportunities, participants lauded the efficacy of indigenous methods on child discipline for its ability to; instil better and responsibility in children and creation of sound and inclusive child protection policies. On other side, it was raised that indigenous&nbsp; parenting practices are associated with; child abuse issues, fail to meet human rights demands, and had long term impact on child development in form of personalities. The study recommended for inclusive child discipline debate emanating from public debates and further research in the area.</p> <p><strong>Key Terms</strong>: opportunities, challenges, indigenous parenting, child discipline, Zimbabwe</p> Taruvinga Muzingili Willard Muntanga Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 10 2 61 69 Exclusion of children with disabilities in community development in Binga Rural Communities, Zimbabwe <p>The purpose of the study was to assess the level of exclusion of children with disabilities (CWDs) in community development in Manjolo ward, Binga, Zimbabwe. A qualitative methodology was employed to collect and analyse data from 22 participants. Participants were 6 CWDs, 4 caregivers, 4 key informants, 5 focus group discussion (FGD) members of the Child Protection Committee (CPC) and 3 children without disabilities. Using the models of disability, the study found that CWDs in Binga faced physical environmental barriers, isolation and were hidden from the public and lacked access to special services. The society believed bearing a child with disability as a curse. The local support systems remained weak to support CWDs. lack of assistive devices, limited skills among service providers, lack of empowerment of CWDs, negative attitudes and perceptions and lack of policy implementation contributed to exclusion of CWDs. The study argues that it is hard to fight rural poverty as long CWDs continue to be excluded. This study recommends the empowerment of CWDs and their inclusion in community development to transform rural communities.</p> <p><strong>Key Terms:</strong> children, disabilities, exclusion, community development</p> Quegas Mutale Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 10 2 70 76 An impact evaluation of government-led social protection for women and children in Chirumanzu-Zivagwe Districts, Zimbabwe <p>An impact evaluation on Government-led social protection for women and children was carried out in Chirumanzu and Zivagwe districts south west of Zimbabwe. The objectives were; to gather statistics of women and children in the districts, to explore diverse social protection programmes for women and children, to explore the challenges faced by women and children in attaining sufficient livelihoods. Finally, to determine social protection programmes for women and children for nutrition and physical wellbeing. A survey method was used to gather data through in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and semi-participant observations with the use of interview tool guides. Data was collected from 60 women and 50 children and 10 key informants drawn from representatives of all stakeholders totalling 120 study participants. The study established that various social protection programmes are provided for people in general and yet very little has been done to address the problem of elderly women and<br>children in particular who appear to experience multifaceted social protection challenges more than their counterparts. This study concluded that there is need for multi-stakeholder approach to address the problems of women and children. The study is calling on Government and international agencies in programming to intervene through reinforcing social protection policies and programmes in order to alleviate absolute poverty amongst women and children in Zimbabwe.</p> <p><strong>Key terms</strong>: Social Protection, Women, Children, Poverty, Chirumanzu, Zivagwe, Zimbabwe</p> Stella Chipo Takaza Claude G. Mararike Ruparanganda Watch Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 10 2 77 87 A cultural understanding of the gendered roles of families in caring for children with disability in Binga <p>This paper sought to understand why the disability and gender sensitive programmes implemented in communities are exclusive of men with an attention on the roles played by men in caring for children with disabilities (CWDs). The findings from the study indicate gendered roles of men and women. Disability has a feminine face and the fathers pay little attention in caring for children with disabilities. Men have little reproductive roles in caring for children with disabilities due to cultural tendencies that regard women as the sole child minders at home. Income security marks the epitome of development organisations interventions- and these targets mainly women. The income expenditure in a household is determined by men; adversely this implies that the exclusion of men from these programmes negatively impact on the household expenditures targeting children with disabilities. They fail to get their basic needs. Premised on the gender dynamics, the findings from the study shows that the roles of either a family or the community is to promote an inclusive society, love a child with disability and ensure that they develop fully to realise their potential.<br>This research has established that culturally, the care of a child amongst the baTonga people is matrimonial and the mothers have a greater duty of upbringing the child.</p> <p><strong>Key Terms</strong>: child care, gender, disability, women, men, children with disability, vulnerability </p> Abednico Siambombe Taurai A. Mutasa Innocent Isaac Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 10 2 88 92 In search of culturally sensitive social work practice in the care and protection of children in Zimbabwe: The case of Remba/Lemba culture <p>This paper examines the interface between cultural rites and social work. Often, the case is that cultural rites have been denigrated and vilified as primitive, oppressive and antithetical to the post-modern era to which the social work profession subscribes. This has dissuaded social workers from acknowledging positive aspects of African cultural rituals that could be tapped to advance the goals of the social work profession. We examine the subject using the Lemba/Remba cultural rites of initiating adolescents into adulthood. The paper contends that it remains vital for social workers to champion children’s rights within the context of African indigenous traditions as Lemba/Remba culture.</p> <p><strong>Key Terms</strong>: Social Work, human rights, cultural diversity, rites of passage, Lemba, Remba, Zimbabwe, South Africa</p> Edmos Mtetwa Munyaradzi Muchacha Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 10 2 93 100 Education on the edges: Reflection on satellite schools in Binga District, Zimbabwe <p>While government of Zimbabwe is lauded by its plausible success in education sector, this paper bemoans the disquieting state of satellite schools in the country. Backed by this background, the paper interrogates the state of satellite schools in rural areas of Zimbabwe. The information for this study was collected through the use of qualitative research design. Findings showed that teaching and learning conditions in the satellite schools is appalling, with dilapidated infrastructure, long distance travelled to school and general lack of investment channelled towards these schools. The paper proffered recommendations which include collaborative stakeholder engagement in revving the satellite schools in rural areas.</p> <p><strong>Key Terms</strong>: education, satellite schools, Binga District, Zimbabwe</p> Laison Mwiinde Taruvinga Muzingili Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 10 2 101 108 Treatment and rehabilitation offenders: Options for social workers in Zimbabwe <p class="western" align="LEFT"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Treatment and rehabilitation of prisoners has evolved to be a critical cause of concern when dealing with offenders within </span></span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">correctional institutions. Despite the good intentions of prison rehabilitation services, studies have shown that there is a high rate </span></span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">of recidivism among offenders in Zimbabwe. This paper sought to examine the challenges faced by social workers and to investigate&nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">the gaps that exist within the rehabilitation framework. The research was qualitative in nature making use of in-depth interviews&nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">and key informant interviews as data collection methods. The study found out that social workers had correctional, rehabilitative&nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">and reintegration roles in prisons even though there were no clear cut demarcation of roles among social scientist, resulting in&nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">rehabilitative roles and behavioural roles of social workers not being considered in most prisons as social workers concentrated&nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">on other prison duties that are more authoritarian in nature. The study therefore recommends the development of a standard&nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">offender based manual for rehabilitation for all prisons in Zimbabwe and the need for forensic social work training to all&nbsp;</span></span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">rehabilitation officers working in a prisons.&nbsp;</span></span></p> Lizzy Zinyemba Francis Maushe Vongai Mangwiro Copyright (c) 2020-08-21 2020-08-21 10 2 109 115 Intergenerational transmission of poverty: The role of agency in mitigating the impact for child headed households - a case of Zola, Soweto (South Africa) <p>The phenomenon of child headed households (CHH) is a ubiquitous pathological challenge in South Africa that requires strengthened responses. The study was grounded in the qualitative approach and a case study was employed as the research design. The target population for this study were children in child headed households identified in Zola 1, 2, 3 and Zola North, Soweto. The study also included social service professionals and other community structures that were supporting child headed households in the Zola area. In addition, the study included as its population, non-formal support structures involved with OVCY, like social auxiliary workers (8), project managers (2), social workers (10), volunteers/community caregivers (10), community leaders (2), educators (3), the clergy (2), neighbours (3). The child headed households were selected through purposive sampling for all the areas they access services from social workers. The findings revealed that community-based organisations play an eminent role of safeguarding children in child headed households. However, there is a disconnect between policy and practice that often leads to poor responses in effective child protection work around child headed households. The study findings reveal that there are internal and external policy weaknesses that impeded the quality of child protection responses. Internal issues were related to lack of proper guidelines and policies that underpinned what constituted a CHH and the appropriate services External policy challenges were related to poor coordination between agencies and the apparent lack of advocacy on the “duty to care” for professionals working with CHH. On the basis of the findings, it is recommended that the South African government should, among other things, provide a properly resourced, co-ordinated and well managed child protection system to facilitate constituency work that responds to the real needs of child headed households and SMART planning by social workers, with systemic teaming around CHH with the Department of Social Development as lead agency.</p> <p><strong>Key Terms</strong>: Department of Social Development (DSD), community structures, community-based organisations (CBO’s), child-headed households (CHH), psycho-social support</p> Leonard Munyaradzi Agere Marilyn Agere Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 10 2 116 123 Zimbabwe’s National Case Management System for child protection and enhanced rights realisation for children with disabilities (CWDS) <p>Impoverishment and social exclusion of Children with Disabilities is pervasive in Zimbabwe. What is further disconcerting to the plight of Children with Disabilities is a fragile economic environment where not enough material resources can be channelled towards guaranteeing their enhanced social functioning. The author did a synthesis of the existing academic and policy literature and uses social work lens to undertake a situational analysis of current Zimbabwean child protection system dynamics with regards to Children with Disabilities hereafter referred to as CWDs. The Ministry of Public Service, Labour, and Social Welfare (MoPSLSW), partnering with UNICEF and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) developed a social protection program incorporating poor households targeted cash transfer and a coordinated system for child protection case management. Given this background, this article will explore state and non-state duty bearers’ roles in guaranteeing enhanced social functioning of CWDs grounded in the human rights framework. The article concludes by offering pathways for more proactive social protection interventions by&nbsp; Government of Zimbabwe, state and none state actors to pro CWDs social protection.</p> <p><strong>Key Terms:</strong>&nbsp; children, poverty, Zimbabwe, rights, disability</p> Tatenda Nhapi Copyright (c) 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 10 2 124 131