Phytochemical And Antimicrobial Effects Of Chrozophora senegalensis
The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the whole plant extract (ethanolic-CEE) of Chrozophora senegalensis and its fractions (ethyl acetate-EAA, n-butanol-NBE, aqueous-AQE) were assayed using the agar plate diffusion and nutrient broth dilution methods. Test microorganisms were Bacillus subtilis (NCTC 8326 B76), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11775), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 021001). Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Salmonella typhi - laboratory isolates. CEE, EAA and NBE inhibited all the test bacterial organisms and a fungus-Aspergillus flavus. AQE inhibited only Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis. None of the extracts had activity on other 3 fungal organisms tested. CEE and EAA showed minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 0.390 and 3.125 mg/ml against S. typhi and E. coli, while NBE and AQE had MIC of 3.125 and 1.563 mg/ml against S. typhi respectively. NBE had an MIC of 12.500 mg/ml against E. coli. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of CEE and EAA was found to be <0.098 against S. typhi. The MBC of AQE was 12.5 mg/ml against E. coli and S. aureus, and 6.25 mg/ml towards P. aeruginosa. CEE and EAA exhibited similar antibacterial activities, followed by AQE. The extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, sterols determined by utilizing standard methods of analysis. This study has justified the traditional use of the plant for treating diarrhea, boils and syphilis.
Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Chrozophora senegalensis, Extracts, Phytochemical Screening, Euphorbiaceae.
African Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Vol. 4 (4) 2007: pp. 488-494
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