African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 2020-04-30T10:35:28+00:00 Prof. Cyprian O. Onyenji Open Journal Systems <p>The “<em>African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines</em> (AJTCAM)” is a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary, international, scientific Open Access Journal that provides publication of articles on phytomedicines, ethnomedicines and veterinary ethnomedicines. The journal is published by a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) known as “African Traditional Herbal Medicine Supporters Initiative (ATHMSI)”. The Journal welcomes submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. Papers will be published approximately two-to-three months after acceptance</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal are:&nbsp;<a title=" " href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>&nbsp;and the PUBMED link: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Antimicrobial and antiradical properties of <i>Hammada scoparia</i> (Pomel) Iljin 2020-04-30T10:18:33+00:00 Aziz Drioichea Nadia Benhlima Samira Kharchoufa Fadoua El-Makhoukhi Smahane Mehanned Imad Adadi Hicham Aaziz Ferdinand Kouoh Elombo Bernard Gressier Bruno Eto Touriya Zaira <p><strong>Background</strong>: Hammada scoparia (Pomel) Iljin (HS), is commonly used by traditional healers in Morocco against microbial and fungal infections. We studied antimicrobial, antifungal and antiradical effects of organic extracts in vitro in order to confirm traditional utilization after phytochemical screening.<br><strong>Materials and methods</strong>: Aerial parts of HS have been extracted by hydro-distillation using Clevenger-type apparatus, and the chemical composition was realized by Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS). The antioxidant activity has been evaluated using DPPH test, while the antimicrobial tests of HS extract were conducted on twenty-eight bacterial strains and antifungal on twelve fungal strains.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Chemical characterization of HS essential oils (EO) confirmed the presence of carvacrol (82,28%), p-cymene (2,52%), γ- terpinene (2,18%) and Z-caryophyllene (2,04%). Antimicrobial tests of HS extract showed a moderate antibacterial activity without antifungal effect. In addition, HS exhibited a very powerful antiradical activity with IC50 = 1,2 mg/ml compared to that of ascorbic acid (IC50 = 0,5 mg/mL) and butylated&nbsp; hydroxyanisole (0,8 mg/mL).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that HS directly inhibits the growth of microorganisms in vitro, and further validates its traditional use as an antiseptic by traditional Moroccan healers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: polyphenolics, Hammada scoparia, antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant. </p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Evaluation of antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against clinical isolates of pathogens from children with acute gastroenteritis at Katutura State Hospital¸ Windhoek, Namibia 2020-04-30T09:57:47+00:00 Albertina M.N. Iikasha Isaac K. Quaye Davis R. Mumbengegwi <p><strong>Background</strong>: Diarrhea is a major health concern in Namibia with an estimate of 17000 cases in 2015 in Omusati and Kunene regions. The present study aimed at isolating and identifying gastrointestinal bacteria from stool samples of children admitted at Katutura hospital, Windhoek, and to determine the efficacy of selected medicinal plants used in treating gastroenteritis in Namibia.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: Stool samples were collected for 6 months from children under age five admitted with acute diarrhea. Seeplex12 automated DNA extractor and PCR were used for isolation and identification of bacterial DNA from the samples. Serially diluted stool samples were cultured on selective media, sub-cultured in Nutrient broth and preserved in 80% glycerol. Parts of <em>Boscia albitrunca, Ziziphus mucronata, Combretum apiculatum, Solanum linnaeanum </em>and<em> Terminalia sericea</em> were collected, dried, ground and extracted using distilled water and ethanol. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the plant extracts against isolated bacteria.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 12 out of the 18 stool samples collected had bacterial pathogens successfully identified by PCR. 33.3% were positive for Salmonella, 11.1% for E. coli 157:H7 VTEC and 22.2% for E.coli H7. <em>C. apiculatum</em> organic extracts exhibited potent antibacterial activity of (16±&nbsp; 0.57mm) at 1000 μg/ml against <em>Shigella</em> and <em>Salmonella</em> with a moderate minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 250 μg/ml against&nbsp;<em> Salmonella.</em> <em>Salmonella</em> and<em> Shigella</em> showed resistance to 10 μg/ml of ampicillin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Plant extracts showed in vitro antibacterial activity. However, toxicology and in vivo efficacy of these plant extracts should be&nbsp; determined before recommending their mainstream uses.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Acute Diarrhea, Medicinal Plants, Antibacterial, Resistance, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Proapoptotic, anti-cell proliferative, anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic potential of carnosic acid during 7,12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis 2020-04-30T10:34:57+00:00 D. Rajasekaran S. Manoharan S. Silvan K Vasudevan N. Baskaran D. Palanimuthu <p>ERRATUM<br>Rajasekaran et al., Afr., J. Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2013; 10(1): 102–112<br>Published online 2012 Oct 1.<br>doi: 10.4314/ajtcam.v10i1.14</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)