African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 2023-03-30T12:29:00+00:00 Prof. Cyprian O. Onyenji Open Journal Systems <p>The “<em>African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines</em> (AJTCAM)” is a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary, international, scientific Open Access Journal that provides publication of articles on phytomedicines, ethnomedicines and veterinary ethnomedicines. The journal is published by a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) known as “African Traditional Herbal Medicine Supporters Initiative (ATHMSI)”. The Journal welcomes submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. Papers will be published approximately two-to-three months after acceptance</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal are:&nbsp;<a title=" " href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>&nbsp;and the PUBMED link: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Acute and sub-acute toxicity of U<i>thuli lwezichwe</i>™, a traditional medicine used in the management of diabetes mellitus in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa 2023-03-30T12:17:07+00:00 Japhet Mangoyi Mlungisi Ngcobo Nceba Gqaleni Peter Aniekan Peter Owira Protus Cele Exnevia Gomo <p><strong>Background</strong>: The number of people using traditional medicines in the management of chronic diseases is increasing. The safety profile of some of the formulations, however, has not been scientifically demonstrated. This study assessed the acute and sub-acute toxicity of <em>Uthuli Lwezichwe</em>™ (<em>UL</em>), a traditional medicine used by a traditional healer in the management of diabetes mellitus.<br><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: In the acute toxicity assay, one female <em>Sprague dawley</em> rat was administered 1000mg/kg body weight (BW) of <em>Uthuli lwezichwe</em>™ and observed for 14 days. In the sub-acute assay, 24 <em>Sprague dawley</em> rats were randomized into four groups. With one group as the control, the other groups were administered varying daily doses (100 mg, 300 mg, 1000 mg/kg BW) of <em>UL</em> for 28 days. Phytochemical analysis of UL was done using Liquid Chromatography – Quadrupole Time of Flight - Mass Spectrometer (LC-QTOF-MS).<br><strong>Results</strong>: There were no significant differences in liver function biomarkers and kidney function biomarkers between the control and all the treatment groups. Histological examination of the kidney however, showed enlarged bowman’s space and distal convoluted tubule diameter and area in the 1000mg/kg UL treated group compared to the control group. Similarly, histological examinations of the liver showed increased sinusoidal space and decreased central vein area in the 1000mg/kg UL treated group. A number of phytoconstituents were identified in UL.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The maximum safe dose was determined to be between 300 – 1000 mg/kg BW. We recommend a chronic toxicity study to assess the long-term effects.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Safety and efficacy of herbal remedies: a review of the models for validation of herbal remedies of some neuropharmacological conditions 2023-03-30T12:20:22+00:00 Gbola Olayiwola <p><strong>Background</strong>: Herbal remedies are making waves in many neurological conditions, and it will be wrong to assume that they do not have to be subjected to the same rigorous ethical investigational pathways as for the synthetic medicines/remedies. The primary and most important concern of pharmacologists in the team of drug developers is the safety of the remedy, whether herbal or synthetic. The remedies are aimed at the human body for the alleviation of the medical condition, so it makes sense to protect that body against further injury. In this context, there is no consideration for a different treatment when herbs are involved.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: This review is based on the teaching approaches of the author, with a view to explaining the rationale for some of the experimental steps in neuropharmacological experiments, particularly with herbs. The issues of experimental models are discussed, with sufficient explanations for the choice of the model, the indices to monitor and the interpretation of the indices. Supporting literature are also provided as appropriate.<br><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Appropriate conclusions are drawn and the target audience are put in a good stead of the appreciation of why they do what they do, while correcting what they have not done well.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Prospects of integration of nanotechnology to antimalarial herbal remedies for improved therapeutic efficacy – a concise review 2023-03-30T12:23:04+00:00 Cyprian .O. Onyeji <p><strong>Background</strong>: The therapeutic utility of herbal medicinal products including antimalarial herbal remedies has been hampered by some unfavorable biopharmaceutical properties of the bioactive constituents such as low aqueous solubility, poor oral bioavailability, poor intestinal permeability and large molecular size. Al these biopharmaceutical issues are responsible for observed reduced in vivo efficacy of some herbal products compared to their in vitro efficacy. These drawbacks can by countered by the integration of nanotechnology. The present article identified the various documented nanosystems and examined the recent efforts in the deployment of nanotechnology in formulations of antimalarial herbal medicines for improved therapeutic efficacies. Also safety considerations in clinical applications of nanoformulations were highlighted.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> The information was acquired from an extensive literature searching of electronic databases such as Science-Direct, PubMed, and Google-Scholar to obtain appropriate articles made in the English language which were published up to 2022, using a combination of relevant keywords.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Only very few herbal antimalarial remedies such as extracts of <em>Azadirachta indica, Momordica charantia, Curcuma longa</em>, and <em>Artemisia</em> species have been nanoformulated and evaluated for antimalarial efficacy. In all these studies, the drug-loaded nanoformulations exhibited significantly higher in vitro and/or in vivo antimalarial efficacy. The different nanoformulations of antimalarial herbal remedies that have been reported include lipid-based nanoparticles, cyclodextrin nanoparticles, chitosan/lecithin nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, conventional and polyethylene glycol liposomes, nanosuspension, nanoemulsions, and metal-based nanoparticles..<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Different types of nanoformulations of herbal antimalarial drugs have been reportedly prepared by different techniques and these offer advantages of improved efficacies. Safety concerns present a hurdle to clinical applications.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Editorial: COP27 climate change conference: urgent action needed for Africa and the world 2023-03-30T12:27:23+00:00 Chris Zielinski <p>No Abstract.</p> 2023-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0