New developments in percutaneous stone surgery
Percutaneous stone surgery is the gold standard in removing large renal calculi. In light of the increase in prevalence and size of renal stones being addressed in recent years, numerous advances have been made in attempts of improving the morbidity, efficacy, and technical ease of stone clearance. In this review article, we assess new advancements in percutaneous stone surgery including diagnosis and surgical planning, methods of renal access, patient positioning, tract dilation, nephroscopes, lithotripsy, and post-operative drainage and antibiotic prophylaxis.
Keywords: Nephrolithiasis; Kidney calculi; Percutaneous nephrolithotomy; New techniques