Outcome of retrograde flexible ureterorenoscopy and laser lithotripsy for treatment of multiple renal stones
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) using flexible ureterorenoscopy (F-URS) and laser lithotripsy as a treatment option for multiple renal stones greater than 1 cm.
Patients and methods: Between June 2015 and February 2017, 42 patients who were treated with RIRS via F-URS and laser lithotripsy were evaluated. Stones were divided into two categories according to stone burden, 11–20 mm and 21–30 mm. Patient’s demographics, stones characteristics, operative outcomes and complications were evaluated prospectively. Stone free rate (SFR) was determined 4 weeks postoperatively using findings on non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT).
Results: Mean stones burden was 25.7 mm (range from 1.3 to 30 mm), 8 patients had 11–20 mm stones burden with SFR 100% and 34 had 21–30 mm stone burden with SFR 91.2%. The overall SFR was 92.8%. Multiple stones were two in 31 patients (73.8%), three in 9 (21.4%) and four in 2 (4.8%). Regarding stone number per kidney and SFR, SFR was 100%, 77.7% and 50% for kidneys with two, three and four stones respectively. In terms of stone location in the pelvi-calyceal system and corresponding SFR, there were renal pelvic stones in 6 (14.3%) patients with 100% SFR, upper calyx and or mid calyx and or renal pelvis in 12 (28.6%) with SFR 91.6% and lower calyx with or without other locations in 24 with SFR 91.6% also. Complications were minor and included, UTI in 3 patients (7.1%), hematuria of 4 days duration in 2 (4.8%), severe DJ stent irritative symptoms in one (2.4%) and minor ureteral perforations in one (2.4%).
Conclusion: RIRS via F-URS and laser lithotripsy is a safe and effective treatment option with high success rate for patients with multiple renal stones of 11–30 mm stone burden. It is indicated when other stone treatment modalities contraindicated or have failed. However, for complex or challenging stones, staged procedures may be required.
Keywords: Renal stones; Retrograde; Flexible ureterorenoscopy; Laser lithotripsy