Assessment of kidney stone disease prevalence in a teaching hospital
Introduction: Kidney stones can be formed by the precipitation or crystallization of minerals and urinary constituents. It is a common problem worldwide manifested with recurrent intermittent pain episodes, surgical interventions, medication consumption which affect the quality of life of the patients.
Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of kidney stone disease among patients admitted to Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). Also, to determine the characteristics of stones, sociodemographic, and comorbid conditions.
Subjects and methods: The study was a retrospective cross-sectional study design. A list of all patients admitted to HUSM for five years (January 1st, 2012 to December 31st, 2016) was retrieved. The statistical analysis included the calculation of descriptive statistics, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test of normality, and Mann–Whitney U test to compare medians.
Results: The prevalence of patients with kidney stones disease was 1.8% among patients admitted to HUSM. Male patients were more than females with a ratio of 1.35:1, the majority of patients were of Malay ethnicity (91.1%, n = 133). There was poor documentation about the physicochemical properties of the kidney stones. The treatment of kidney stones was individualized between patients according to their cases, shockwave lithotripsy was the most prevalent mode of treatment among patients (45%, n = 67).
Conclusions: Future national studies are needed to better assess the scope of the disease epidemiological measures, and to determine kidney stone formation pattern in the Malaysian population. As healthcare provision that copes with the significance of the disease will assure better outcomes.