Effects of Pineal Proteins on Biochemical, Enzyme Profile and Non-Specific Immune Response of Indian Goats under Thermal Stress
The present study was conducted to establish the possible relationship between pineal gland, adrenal cortex and immune system under thermal stress in goats. The primary objective of the study was to observe how this relationship modifies the biochemical, enzyme profile and non-specific immune response on the well-being of female goats during short-term thermal stress. The study was conducted for a period of 17 days under psychrometric chamber exposing the goats to 40°C and 60% RH. The animals served as self-controls prior to start of the experiment. Blood samples were drawn on day 0 and day 10 to establish control and thermal stress values respectively. Chemical adrenalectomy was achieved using metyrapone, followed by exogenous total precipitated pineal protein treatment. Both treatments were given from 11th to 17th day of study and blood collection was done after each treatment on these days. Thermal stress significantly affected plasma glucose, total protein, total cholesterol and ALP. Chemical adrenalectomy significantly affected plasma levels of glucose, cholesterol, urea, ACP, ALP and phagocytosis index. Total precipitated pineal proteins successfully and significantly relieved the animals from adverse effects of heat stress and metyrapone treatment. There is evidence that most of the parameters studied were influenced by pineal protein indicating their anti-stress properties. This result establishes that total precipitated pineal proteins have significant influence on the levels to which biochemical and enzyme constituents relieve thermal stress in goats. Furthermore, it is evident from the study that pineal proteins posses the ability to influence non-specific immune response in goats.