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Haematological and Histological Changes in Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.) After Chronic Dietary Copper Exposure and Recovery

UB Akpoilih, RC Ekeanyanwu, EK Ajani

Abstract


Effects of exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to dietary copper and its recovery rate were investigated with the aim of determining the haematological and histological impact. In this study, fish were fed elevated copper diets (1000mgCukg-1 and 2000 mgCukg-1 as diet 2 and diet 3 respectively) and control diet (diet 1) for 42days and were then fed the control diet for a further 21days. Fish fed diet 2 (1000 mgCukg-1) showed significant increase (p<0.05) in haematocrit, red blood cell, white blood cell and neutrophil and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in lymphocyte and mean cell haemoglobin compared to diet 1 and diet 3. This increase in blood indices is indicative of stress onset to which fish fed diet 2 (1000 mgCukg-1) is subjected. Fish fed diet 3 (2000 mgCukg-1) showed significant reduction in haematocrit, red blood cell, white blood cell and increased lymphocyte (p<0.05) and became anaemic with severe skin discoloration, indicative of a worsening effect of excess dietary copper exposure on the fish. Gills and intestines of both diet 2 and diet 3 were normal during and after exposure, but fatty change was observed throughout the experiment. In conclusion, increasing the copper level of common carp, which it required for its normal physiological function, beyond tolerable dose, impacted negatively on its normal physiology.



AJOL African Journals Online