The value of laparoscopic classifications in decision on definitive surgery in patients with nonpalpable testes: our experience and review of the literature
Background/purpose The aim of the study was to present our clinical experience with the laparoscopic approach in patients with nonpalpable testes (NPTs) and review the literature on laparoscopic classifications.
Materials and methods Between May 2010 and August 2012, 30 boys with NPT (mean age 3.9 years) underwent laparoscopy as a part of diagnosis and treatment in our clinic. The laparoscopic findings were classified into four types according to Castilho. The patients were managed according to the presence or position of the testes and testicular vessels.
Results Six patients were excluded from the study. Twenty-six testicular units (19 left, three right, and four bilateral units) in 24 patients were managed laparoscopically. Laparoscopy was terminated in eight patients in whom blind-ending cord structures were detected intra-abdominally. An inguinal canal exploration was performed in 10 cases in whom cord structures were seen entering the internal inguinal ring. No viable testis was found, and testicular remnants were excised for histopathologic examination. Four canalicular testes (peeping) were treated with open orchiopexy. Laparoscopy-assisted orchiopexy without vascular ligation was performed in two testes. Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy in single stage was performed in one testicular unit and in two stages in another unit. All patients were discharged on the same day. The testes were normal in size and found in the scrotum after a mean follow-up period of 14 months.
Conclusion The laparoscopic findings in NPT had an important influence on treatment decisions. To be able to interpret the definitive surgery relative to the laparoscopic classification, collaborative studies are required.
Keywords: laparoscopy, nonpalpable testis, nubbin, orchiopexy, vas deferens