Extension Implications Of The Social And Economic Characteristics Of Human Resources In The Baking Industry In South-Eastern Nigeria

  • Nnenna J Enwere Department of Food Science and Technology
  • MC Madukwe Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.


The social and economic characteristics of the human resources in the baking industry in south-eastern Nigeria were studied. The human resources used for the study were the managers, supervisors and factory floor workers. The study was done using an enterprise level interview schedule in Onitsha, Owerri, Aba and Nsukka in south-eastern Nigeria. Almost all the bakeries studied (96.9%) were owned and managed by the owners or their family members. The managers were aged between 21 and over 60 years with more males (75%), than females (25%). Many of them (43.8%) had completed secondary and 21.9% completed primary school education. Many of the mangers (43.8%) claimed that they could not estimate their monthly income whereas 28.1% claimed they earned not more than N10,000 per month. The ages of the supervisors were between 20 and 50 years. Many of the supervisors had completed secondary (42.9%) and 31.9% their primary school education. The monthly income of the supervisors ranged between N1,000 and N10,000 per month. Most of the factory floor workers were aged between 21 and 60 years. Many of them had completed their secondary school education (44.8%), while 22.9% had completed their primary education. The monthly income of the factory-floor workers ranged between less than N1000 and N8,000 with 98% of the workers earning not more than N5,000. The salaries were obviously low for all workers .Of all the workers, only 6.1% of the managers had formal training on the baking business. All the others learned on the job and most of them helped to train their fellow workers. There were generally more male than female workers in the bakeries. These have varying household sizes.

Agro-Science Vol.2(1) 2001: 50-62

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eISSN: 1119-7455