African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention https://www.ajol.info/index.php/asp <p><em>African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention (ASP)</em> is a forum for discussion and debate among scholars, policy-makers and practitioners active in the field of injury prevention and safety promotion. ASP seeks to promote research and dialogue around a central public health issue that affects Africa, namely injury and violence.</p><p> </p><p>Other websites related to this journal: <a title="http://www.unisa.ac.za/Default.asp?Cmd=ViewContent&amp;ContentID=25985" href="http://www.unisa.ac.za/Default.asp?Cmd=ViewContent&amp;ContentID=25985" target="_blank">http://www.unisa.ac.za/Default.asp?Cmd=ViewContent&amp;ContentID=25985</a></p> en-US Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Nancy.Hornsby@mrc.ac.za (Nancy Hornsby) africansafetypromotion@mrc.ac.za (Nancy Hornsby) Fri, 18 Jan 2019 12:38:02 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Symbolic violence: Enactments, articulations and resistances in research and beyond https://www.ajol.info/index.php/asp/article/view/182102 <p>In his pioneering work on the subject, French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu (2001, p.1-2) defines symbolic violence as “a type of submission… a gentle violence, imperceptible and invisible even to its victims, exerted for the most part through purely symbolic channels of communication and cognition, recognition or even feeling....”. This Special Issue of<em> African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention</em> seeks to reflect on the multiple ways that symbolic violence is implicated in research; how research reproduces symbolic violence; and how hierarchies within research institutions determine the ‘legitimacy’ of specific knowledges and knowledge producers. We believe that a focus on symbolic violence is necessary to advance nuanced, complex and meaningful understandings of how different kinds of violence operate and are sustained in contemporary society.</p> Sipho Dlamini, Rebecca Helman, Nick Malherbe Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/asp/article/view/182102 Fri, 18 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The geographies of heteronormativity: The source of symbolic homophobic violence at a South African university https://www.ajol.info/index.php/asp/article/view/182103 <p>This article examines how symbolic homophobic violence is produced from hegemonic and heteronormative institutional geographies. This study forms part of a larger project with Life Orientation student-teachers that investigated the strengthening of HIV and AIDS integration in the curriculum. Five student teachers from the class cohort used photovoice to illustrate how students with same-sex sexual identities were subjected to othering, discrimination, bigotry and overt forms of violent aggression emanating from their non-conforming gender expressions. Through photovoice-narrative interviews, I found that their transgression in spatial heterosexual norms resulted in intimidation, vilification and, in extreme cases, overt forms of violence by peers. This article focused on two themes, namely the physical geographies of symbolic homophobic violence and punishment, and discipline of geographies of the non-normative gendered body. Although symbolically homophobic violence can be linked to individual resistance to same-sex sexuality, this article shows that symbolic violence is largely reproduced by the contours of heteronormativity maintained by institutional geographies. If universities are committed to inclusive and safe learning spaces for diverse identities then they will have to interrogate how hegemonic cultures mobilise discourses that enforce systemic oppression.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> geographies, institutionalised heteronormativity, symbolic homophobic violence, same-sex sexualities</p> Anthony Brown Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/asp/article/view/182103 Fri, 18 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Symbolic violence and the invisibility of disability https://www.ajol.info/index.php/asp/article/view/182104 <p>Disability as a social justice issue is not part of mainstream talk. Approximately 15% of the world’s population has a disability, and yet persons with disabilities are systematically subjected to this sort of exclusion. If considered in terms of social power, then persons with disabilities are the largest single minority group. Amongst minorities, exclusion from the social and representational order is a forceful form of symbolic violence. Persons with disabilities are systematically subjected to this sort of exclusion. In the public domain, persons with disabilities are either not represented at all, or misrepresented. The misrepresentation of persons with disabilities takes a host of cultural forms. This paper explores a few examples of these forms, as they can be considered examples of symbolic violence. We explore how negative social value may be internalised, and how this constitutes a form of symbolic violence experienced by persons with disabilities. We argue that persons with disabilities must constantly act against subtle and blatant acts of symbolic violence – including exclusion – and that the necessity of constant resistance characterises the lives of disabled persons. We argue that it is necessary not only to recognise the detrimental effects of having to confront the symbolic violence of a society which is structured for the benefit of those with typical embodiment, but also to frame this social injustice as something which leads to very real and very dangerous exclusions.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> symbolic violence, disability, sexuality, representation, exclusion</p> Leslie Swartz, Xanthe Hunt, Brian Watermeyer, Mark Carew, Stine Hellum Braathen, Poul Rohleder Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/asp/article/view/182104 Fri, 18 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between symbolic violence and overt violence in hate incidents in South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/asp/article/view/182106 <p>The study reported here explored the relationship between symbolic violence and overt violence through the descriptions of hate incidents experienced in South Africa. Data were collected during a five-year longitudinal study conducted under the auspices of the Hate Crimes Working Group, using its Hate and Bias Monitoring Form and an accompanying user guide. Thematic analysis was used to create categories, themes and interpretations of hate incidents. Six primary themes emerged: i) the victim is less than human or like an animal; ii) humiliation of the victim; iii) use of extreme overkill or destruction; iv) the victim is to blame; v) messages conveyed by hate incidents; and vi) intentional unfair discrimination. These themes are discussed in relation to the existing body of literature on symbolic violence. We argue that there is a mutually reinforcing relationship between symbolic violence and overt violence in hate victimisation. Symbolic violence creates a society in which hate victimisation of certain vulnerable groups becomes socially acceptable by constructing the circumstances in which overt violence could take place. Overt violence occurs when symbolic violence is no longer effective in controlling vulnerable groups, with offenders blatantly resorting to reinforce power differences between themselves and their victims. Overt violence reinforces symbolic violence by sending a message to victims directly, as well as to their larger communities, in terms of their undesirability, not belonging, and being third-class citizens. Effective violence prevention has to take this relationship into account, especially as South Africa grapples with related legislative and policy responses.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> symbolic violence, hate incidents, bias; message crimes, violence, prevention</p> Tanya Pieterse, Vanessa Stratford, Juan A. Nel Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/asp/article/view/182106 Fri, 18 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000