Spatial distribution and epidemiological features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southwest of Iran
Introduction: Leishmaniasis, as a major health concern exists in 14 out of 22 countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). Therefore, the aim of present investigation was to evaluate the epidemiological features and spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) during six consecutive years (2009–2014).
Material and methods: In current retrospective cross-sectional study among 2009–2014, simple direct smear was taken from all suspicious CL subjects who referred to health centers affiliated to Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. For each patient a questionnaire including some demographic details was filled. Eventually data analysis was done by SPSS.16.
Results: Trend of CL in the region was unstable. Spatial distribution of CL in central and west cities was higher than in others. During the years, a total of 4137 smear positive individuals were diagnosed. Of these 55.7% lived in urban and 44.3% lived in rural districts. Frequency of CL was higher in men (60.1%) than in women (39.9%). Also based on age range, 11–30 was the most afflicted group (45.7%). Anatomic location of ulcers was as follows: hands 45.7%, feet 27.4%, face 19.1% and other places 7.8%.
Conclusions: Regarding high incidence of CL in southwest of Iran, special programs related to vector and reservoir control should be adopted and implemented. Traffic control of immigrants and travelers from neighboring endemic countries, also can be helpful.