Interplay of adipokines in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension: A comparative cross-sectional in Ghana
Background: The renin-angiotensin-system (RAS), endothelial dysfunction and sympathetic nervous system are mechanistic risk factors of hypertension. The study sought to elucidate the interplay of adipokines in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension.
Methodology: This comparative cross-sectional study recruited 200 confirmed hypertensive patients from the KATH and 50 age-matched normotensives. Participants’ blood pressures, anthropometric and socio-demographic information were voluntarily obtained. Serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and resistin of the participants were quantified using the ELISA. Renal function, lipid profile and glycemic status of all subjects were also analyzed.
Results: Hypertensive patients showed a significantly higher anthropometric indices of adiposity compared to normotensives, CI (p < 0.0001), BAI (p < 0.0001) and AVI (p = 0.002). Adiponectin levels (p < 0.0001) were significantly lower in the hypertensive relative to the normotensives. Furthermore, significantly higher concentrations of serum leptin (p = 0.016) and the leptin-adiponectin ratio (p = 0.001) were observed among the hypertensive compared to the normotensives. The study further observed a direct association between serum leptin and weight (r = 0.111, p = 0.022), BMI (r = 0.129, p = 0.009) and WHtR (r = 0.098, p = 0.045) but inverse relationship with height (r = -0.134, p = 0.006) among the hypertensive. Serum leptin has a significant negative correlation with HDL-C among the hypertensive (r = -0.174, p = 0.013). The fully aOR for hypertension as predicted by resistin and adiponectin were 1.12 (95% Cl, 1.02–1.25); p = 0.019) and 0.93 (95% Cl, 0.91–0.95); p = 0.0001) respectively.
Conclusion: We found that elevations in serum levels of leptin and resistin, and low levels of adiponectin may play a role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. Therefore, adipokines may offer themselves as potential indices for early and accurate detection of high blood pressure. At the same time our present
results also confirm the conclusions with respect to correlation of leptin and obesity. Further longitudinal studies in a larger population are warranted to investigate the physiological and pathological functions of adipokines in hypertension.
Keywords: Adipokines, Hypertension, Leptin, Adiponectin, Resistin