Current Survey of Trypanosomosis among Livestock and Wildlife in the Arid Region of Northeastern, Nigeria
Examination of blood from sedentary and nomadic livestock, captive carnivores and Artodactyla/ Proboscidae for trypanosome infections in the arid region of northeastern, Nigeria, was conducted from 2009 – 2012 using thin, thick and buffy coat smears. Among the sedentary livestock examined, 14.3% were infected with Trypanosoma vivax, 0.3% with T. brucei and 2.3% with T. congolense out of 700 cattle; 52% and 26.2% were infected with T. evansi out of 125 camels and 65 horses examined, respectively; 2.0% were infected with T. vivax and T. evansi and 1.0% with T. congolense out of 100 sheep; and 1.3% were infected with T. vivax while 2.6% had T. brucei out of 78 goats. Among the nomadic livestock, 1,324 cattle were infected with T. vivax, T. brucei and T. congolense, respectively, while 39.2% of the 655 camels had T. evansi and the horses had no infection. Among the 450 nomadic sheep, 1.6%, 0.4%, 0.2% had T. vivax, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. evansi infections respectively, while the infection rates were 0.6%, 0.3% and 0.6% for T. vivax, T. brucei T. congolense and T. evansi respectively among the 365 nomadic goats examined. Out of the 10 lions examined, 20% and 30% had T. vivax and T. brucei infections, respectively. The 9 stripped hyeanas examined showed infections rates of 22.2%, 44.4% and 11.1% for T. vivax, T. brucei and T. congolense, respectively. Out of the 6 spotted hyeanas examined, 66.7% and 33.3% had T. vivax, T. brucei and T. congolense infections, respectively; whereas 2(50%) of 4 jackals examined had both T. vivax and T. brucei infections. One caracal examined (100%) was infected with T. brucei. Infection with T. vivax was 100% in 2 African elephants, 1 cape eland, 4 western kob and 2 Senegal hartebeest. There were infections with T. vivax, T. brucei and T. congolense in 30%, 20% and 15% out of 20 dorcas gazelles, 25% and 12.5% out of 8 sitatungas and 38.9%, 16.7% and 22.2% out of 18 red fronted gazelles respectively. Among the 10 Grimm’s duicker, 20%, 10%, 30% and 10% were infected with T. vivax, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. evansi respectively. The probable vectors involved were Tabanus, Stomoxys and Hippobosca. However, oral transmission among the carnivores was another possibility. Therefore, trypanosomosis is endemic in the region with implication that, sustained surveillance and control measures are required to reduce risks to wildlife conservation and losses in livestock production.
Keywords: survey, trypanosomosis, livestock, wildlife, arid region, Nigeria