Prevalence of camel Trypanosomosis and its associated risk factors in Moyale District, Borena Zone, Southern Ethiopia
A cross-sectional study coupled with questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of camel trypanosomosis and assess associated risk factors in Moyale district, Borena Zone, Oromia region, southern Ethiopia from November 2014 to April 2015. Blood samples were collected from randomly selected 384 camels. Giemsa-stained blood smears were used for the detection of Trypanosomes infection. Out of 384 examined camels, 39 (10.2%) were positive for Trypanosoma evansi. There was statistically significant difference between age groups and trypanosome infection (P<0.05). Higher prevalence of the infection was recorded in Age group of >4 years (15.5%) followed by 3-4 years (5.6%) and < 3 years old camels (2.6%), respectively. A higher infection was found in males (15.6%) as compared to females (9.1%). However, there was no statistically significant difference in prevalence between sex categories (P >0.05). The prevalence was varied among study localities within the district revealing the highest prevalence in Bokola (14.3%) and the lowest (7.1%) in Lagasure. A questionnaire survey was administered to 45 respondents comprised of 80% of the interviewed camel herders were pastoralists while the rest were agro-pastoralists to assess knowledge, attitude and practices of the community about camel trypanosomosis. All respondents (100%) were familiar with the disease and knew the typical clinical signs of the disease. According to the respondents the cause and means of the transmission of the disease was by biting flies at congregation of camel herds around water and in pasture. About 88.9% of householders stated that the disease occurs at onset of major rainy season. All of them mentioned that the disease causes abortion. The present study revealed that camel trypanosomosis is prevalent in Moyale district at relatively low levels. Thus, there is need of further study with the use of more sensitive diagnostic tests in order to establish effective control measures.
Keywords: Blood, Camel trypanosomosis, Moyale, Prevalence, Smear, Survey