Conventional and serological detection of Fasciolosis in ruminants slaughtered in Maiduguri abattoir, Northeast Nigeria
The study was conducted to determined seasonal prevalence of fasciolosis and compare between its conventional diagnosis and serological identification in ruminants slaughtered at Maiduguri abattoir, northeastern Nigeria. Nine hundred samples each of faeces and blood; that is 300 each from cattle, sheep and goats was collected for the analysis. The prevalence of Fasciola in cattle, sheep and goats during the rainy season were: 12.0% (95% confidence interval <CI>: 8.8-16.2), 9.0% (95% CI: 6.3-12.8) and 7.3% (95% CI: 4.9-10.9) respectively and during the dry season, the prevalence were 15.3% (95% CI: 11.7-19.8), 10.3% (95% CI: 7.4-14.3) and 11.0% (95% CI: 7.9-15.1) respectively. The odds of the likely hood of infestation with fasciola during the rainy season was higher in goats (odd ratio<OR>: 1.72; 95% CI: 0.99-3.05), followed by sheep (OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.82-2.35) and least in cattle (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.33-1.01). While during the dry season, the odds was higher in sheep (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 0.97-2.58), followed by goats (OR: 1.47: 95% CI: 0.91-2.38) and then cattle (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.42-1.10), there was no significant association between the species in both season (P>0.05). The result of the comparative evaluation of Fasciola revealed that ELISA was more sensitive than the sedimentation method (AUC for ELISA = 0.512–0.521) while the (AUC for sedimentation method = 0.500–0.521) during both rainy and dry seasons. Fasciola infestation was prevalent in ruminants seasonally and endemic in the study area. Serological method was found to be the diagnostic technique of choice for the diagnosis of fasciolosis. Awareness needs to be created on fasciolosis in the study area and sensitive diagnostic tool like ELISA should be use for the early detection of the parasite.
Keywords: Fasciolosis, prevalence, abattoir, ELISA, Maiduguri