Farm animal health managements and treatment practices at Diga district, East Wollega zone of Oromia regional state
Farm animal health problems with respective management, local knowledge and treatment options with prognosis were assessed in Diga district, Wollega-Oromia, Ethiopia from November 2014. Randomly selected farm animals with clinical cases being cattle (n=175), sheep (n=74), equine (n=38), poultry (n=27) and goat (n=3) presented at the clinic were studied. Animal sex, age, species and body condition were considered. Cases were characterized and determined using tentative diagnosis and patho-gnomonic signs. The owners were also interviewed for local name of the disease. The respective therapeutic drugs used were also assessed. Male cattle (57.7%), poultry (76.3%) and goat (66.7) were frequently presented to the Veterinary clinic than respective female while the reverse is true in sheep and equine. In total, the cases of gastrointestinal (GIT) (29.7%), skin and integuments (22.1%), cardiovascular (18.0%), respiratory diseases (14.2%), production problems (5.0%), musculoskeletal (4.7%), neuromuscular (3.8%) and reproductive system (2.5%) were observed in increasing order. With regards to specific diseases, trypanosomes (23.4%), lumpy skin disease (13.7%), black-leg (8.6%), babesiosis (7.4%), mangemites (6.9%), fasciolosis (5.7%), mastitis (4.6%), GIT parasites (4.6%), CBPP (4.0%) and tick infestation (3.4%) in cattle; fasciolosis (21.6%), pneumonia(13.5%), orf and pasteurellosis (8.1%), and mangemites, GIT parasites, CCPP, hypocalcemia each (6.8%) in sheep; orf (33.3%) and CCPP (33.3%) in goat were observed. Colic (31.6%), tetanus (26.9%), wound (18.4%) and pneumonic (10.5%) were frequent in equines while coccidian (55.6%) and NCD (40.7%) in poultry. Most of the cases and diseases are also known with local language. Oxyteteracycline, penstreap, deminazin aceturat and albendazole were frequently used drugs for the treatment of the aforementioned farm animal health problems with good (86.8%) but 13.2% poor prognoses. Discussion of the finding on health problems in this article was made for respective farm animal. The survey indicated infectious diseases, parasitic cases, and nutritional deficiency and management problems as major heath constraints for livestock development in the area. Thus, a need for expansion of quality Veterinary services and improvement in the feeding system with detail study on specific disease on each groups of farm animal in the area.
Key Words: Animal health, Diga, Veterinary Clinic, Prognosis