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Seroprevalence of Camel Brucellosis In Pastoral Areas of Afar, Somali and Oromia Regions, Ethiopia
A cross-sectional study was conducted in the pastoral areas of Afar, Somali and Oromia regions of Ethiopia between October 2008 and May 2009 to determine the antibody prevalence and to identify risk factors for brucellosis in camels (Camelus dromedorius). Sera were collected from 1100 camels and 86 herds. Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) was used to screen all serum samples and positive samples were subjected to confirmation by complement fixation test (CFT). Twenty six of these (2.36%) tested positive using the Rose Bengal plate test and 21 (1.91%) tested positive by the complement fixation test. The true seroprevalence of camel brucellosis as adjusted to the RBPT and CFT sensitivities and specificities was 5.71%. The highest prevalence (3.16%) was reported in Afar however the difference was not significant (p>0.05) among regions. Age and sex were not found to be significant in the occurrence of brucellosis. Univariable logistic regression model showed that adult camels in the age group of 4-6years had significant impact on camel seropositivity to brucellosis (P<0.05, odds ratio (OR), 4.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.38-15.04). Herd size recorded significant association with seropositivity of brucellosis (P<0.05, medium herds OR, 5.51; 95%CI, 1.80-16.91 and large herds OR, 1.85; 95%CI, 0.46-7.48). The authors recommend the implementation of well-organized disease control and prevention methods to mitigate the economic losses and public health hazard caused by the disease.