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Bovine Trichomoniasis: An Overview
Bovine trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted and host specific disease in cattle. It is caused Tritrichomonas foetus, a flagellated protozoa found in the reproductive tract particularly the prepuce and the distal penis in the bull and the vagina and uterus of the cow. It is worldwide in distribution although prevalence rates had subsided particularly in areas where artificial insemination is widely used. Bulls are asymptomatic chronic carriers of the organism and since infection does not affect the fertility of the bull or the viability of their spermatozoa, they are regarded as permanent sources of infection. In the cows, it is characterized by prolonged breeding interval; repeat breeding, early embryonic death, occasional late abortions and rarely pyometra. The asymptomatic nature of the disease makes accurate diagnosis difficult thereby posing serious economic losses. Information about the disease in Africa are few, the distribution of the disease particularly in Africa are discussed in the paper.