Cytotoxic Effect of Crude Aqueous Extract of Pistia Stratiotes Leaves (water lettuce) on Body Weight and Renal Cells of Albino Rats
Pistia stratiotes is a medicinal plant used traditionally to treat a various diseases such as skin infections, worm infections, tuberculosis, ulcer, diabetes etc. The present study was designed to investigate the effect this crude aqueous extract may have on body weight and renal cells function in albino rats. Twelve white Albino rats divided into 4 groups of 3 rats each were used. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were administered orally of 100, 200 and 300mgkg-1 body weight of the aqueous leaves extract of pistia stratiotes respectively, while group 1 served as control and was given the vehicle. Body weight and renal indices were significantly (p<0.05) altered at higher doses of the extract when compared to control. The study shows that aqueous extract of p. stratiotes leaves may have effect on body weight and renal cells of albino rats after 5 days. At the end of the study, body weight of the animals was 156.27±1.91g (group 1), 141.32±0.82g (group 2), 140.38±1.77g (group 3), and 161.29±0.97g (group 4) as against the body weight of 150.32±2.27g, 146.37±1.73g, 145.71±2.20g, and 165.32±1.75g, correspondingly before administration of the extract. There were significant differences (based on T-test and p-values 141.32±0.82g and 140.38±1.77g) in the body weight of group 3 and 4 before and after administration of the extract. Serum urea concentrations were 6.71±1.19 mmol/L, 18.57±2.98 mmol/L, 27.27±2.37 mmol/L in extract treated groups 2, 3 and 4 respectively, as against the concentration of 7.11±1.19 mmol/L before the administration of the extract. There were significant differences (p<0.05) (based on T-test and p-values 7.11±1.19 mmol/L, 18.57 mmol/L and 27.27±2.37 mmol/L) between urea concentration of group 1, 2 and 3 before and after the administration of the extract. Serum creatinine concentration was found to be 108.51±3.21 mmol/L in controls, before the administration of the extract as against the concentration of 102.21±7.67 mmol/L, 123.80±2.15 mmol/L, 129.20±7.15 mmol/L in treated groups 2, 3 and 4 after the administration of the extract respectively. There were significant differences (based on 108.51±3.21 mmol/L and 102.21±7.67mmol/L) between serum creatinine concentration of group 1 and 2 before and after the administration of the extract. Hence, results from this finding revealed that the aqueous extract of pitia stratiotes leaves could be associated with some levels of kidney toxicity.
Keywords: Pistia stratiotes, body weight, renal indices, extract, administration.