In vivo anti-malarial potentials of some plants extracts on ICR-mice, Mus musculus
Five medicinal plants, Acacia nilotica (Fabaceae), Citrus aurantifolia (Rutaceae), Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae) Carica papaya (Caricaceae), and Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) used for the treatment of malaria/ fever by the Hausa people of Kano-Nigeria were selected based on their traditional claims. These were extracted using ethanol. The in vitro antiplasmodial activities of these extracts against laboratory adapted chloroquine susceptible strain of Plasmodium falciparum (3D7) were earlier reported (Dabo et al. 2013). This study was conducted to evaluate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of four of these extracts using icr mice in the 4-day suppressive test against P. berghei. The extracts evaluated were: Acacia nilotica (Fabaceae) stem extract coded as ANSF1; Citrus aurantifolia (Rutaceae) leaf extract coded as CALF1; Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae) leaf extract coded as MILF1 and combination of C. aurantifolia, Carica papaya (Caricaceae), M. indica and Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) leaves extract coded as CBLF1. CALF1, ANSF1 and CBLF1 (combination) exhibited appreciable degree of suppression of 31.06%, 25.16 and %16.35% respectively. MILF1 did not exhibit any suppression against the P. berghei parasite in vivo at all. With the exception of haemoglobin content (P<0.0363), haematological analysis of the various blood parameters of mice in the control and treated mice indicated no statistical difference (P>0.05). Thus it can be concluded that, the apparent absence of changes in haematological profile alongside activities exhibited by CALF1 (Rutaceae), CBLF1 (a combination) and ANSF1 (Fabaceae),) suggest the bio-availability and antiplasmodial activities of the active substances in the plants evaluated.
Keywords: Antimalaria; In vivo, Plants Extracts; Mus musculus; Plasmodium berghei.