Effects of micronutrients on oxidative stress in HIV positive patients taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in a tertiary health care facility in Kano, northwest Nigeria
The study examined the effects of micronutrients supplementation on oxidative stress markers in HIV positive patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), attending Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH) Kano-Nigeria. Fifty four (54) HIV positive individuals already taking HAART were placed on a daily dose of a multivitamin supplement for a period of three months. Another 54 HIV positive subjects who were already on HAART served as the control group for the same period of time. Prior to the multivitamin supplementation, the baseline mean serum vitamin A, C, and E, selenium, zinc, malondehaldehyde (MDA), albumin, total protein, and CD4+ count values were established. With the exception of mean serum vitamin C, the mean serum values for the studied parameters after the supplementation period increased significantly (P<0.05) in the non supplemented group compared to their baseline values. The mean serum vitamin A, C, and E, Se, total protein and CD4+ count of the supplemented group increased significantly when compared to their baseline values. Mean serum MDA was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the multivitamin supplemented group compared to their baseline. No significant difference (P<0.05) was seen in the mean serum vitamin C and albumin of the multivitamin supplemented group as compared to their baseline. The mean serum vitamins A, C, and E and the CD4+ count of the multivitamins supplemented subjects significantly increased (P<0.05) when compared to that of the non supplemented subjects. Mean serum selenium and zinc increased significantly (P<0.05) in the non supplemented subjects but not in the supplemented subjects. The serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) in the form of malondialdehyde (MDA), for the supplemented subjects was found to reduce significantly (P<0.05) compared to that of the non supplemented subjects. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the supplemented and the non supplemented subjects in their serum total protein and albumin. Among the supplemented Subjects, vitamin A and C increased significantly (P<0.05) in the ARV treatment naïve sub group. Vitamin E, selenium and zinc increased significantly (P<0.05) in the ARV treated sub group, while MDA decreased significantly (P<0.05) in this sub group. Micronutrient supplementation was therefore shown to reduce oxidative stress in HIV positive patients on HAART and could possibly be very helpful as an adjunct in the treatment of this disease.
Key Words: Antiretroviral, micronutrients, malondialdehyde, ART naïve, reactive oxygen species, supplementation.